Pisarate rada: sunnitud põliselanike ümberpaigutamine

Pisarate rada: sunnitud põliselanike ümberpaigutamine



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Avastage pisarate rada: välgutund ajalooliste paikade õpetamisest

(Foto ümberpaigutusrajast viisakalt Tennessee keskkonna- ja kaitseosakonna poolt, autor Benjamin Nance)

Millised olid 1830. aasta India kolimisseaduse tagajärjed?
Millist ajaloolist kohta võiksite sellele küsimusele vastamiseks uurida?

1830. aastate lõpuks sundis või sundis USA valitsus hinnanguliselt 100 000 Ameerika indiaanlast kolima oma kodumaalt kagusse kaugetesse reservatsioonidesse. Nende inimeste hulka kuulusid Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek ja Seminole Nations liikmed. Nad läbisid palju erinevaid teid, kuid jagavad lugu. Pisarate rada on tänapäeval kultuuriline ja füüsiline maastik, mis seda lugu räägib. Sellel on õigus õpetada, miks ja kuidas enamik nendest riikidest pärit inimesi kolis oma kodudest Põhja-Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia ja Alabama osades India territooriumile praegusel Oklahomas.

See õppetund rõhutab võitlust selle eest, et Cherokee liikmed hoiaksid oma maa, valitsuse ja kultuuri käes, pidades silmas ülekaalukat survet. Cherokee rahvuse teekond toimus aastatel 1838–1839. Selles õppetükis uurivad õpilased keerulist lugu sellest, kuidas põlisrahvad pidasid oma identiteedi säilitamiseks läbirääkimisi seaduse ja kultuuri kaudu. Nad analüüsivad ümberpaigutamise ja ümberpaigutamise vastaseid väljavaateid.

Ajalooline Major Ridge'i maja Gruusias ja rahvuspargi teenistuse pisarate rada National Historic Trail räägivad Cherokee India sunniviisilise ümberpaigutamise ajalugu. Ajal, mil tšerokid nägid vaeva, et hoida oma rahvast idas, toetas tšerookide juht nimega major Ridge läände liikumist. Ajaloolised kohad nagu Major Ridge House annavad tõendeid Cherokee kogemustest ja Ameerika Ühendriikide Ameerika indiaanlaste väljasaatmise poliitikast. Siinsed materjalid tutvustavad õpilastele neid teemasid tõenduspõhiste uurimiste ja oskuste arendamise harjutuste kaudu.

Kus see õppekavasse sobib

See õppetund võib olla osa Ameerika indiaanlaste, Jacksoni Ameerika, Manifest Destiny või ajaloo laienemise ajalooüksusest, kultuurilise mitmekesisuse ühiskonnaõpetuse üksusest või demograafia geograafiaüksusest.

Ajavahemik: Jacksoni ajastu, 1820. ja 1830. aastad


Ajaloo, ühiskonnaõpetuse ja ühise tuuma riiklikud standardid

See õppetund on seotud UCLA riikliku ajaloo keskusega koolide riiklikes ajaloostandardites:

See õppetund on seotud sotsiaaluuringute riikliku nõukogu riiklike standardite riikliku nõukogu temaatiliste suundadega:

Täistunnist leitud materjalid

Kaasasolevad küsimuste komplektid on ühendatud kogu õppetunni materjalidega (PDF).

• Kaart: Suunab õpilasi ja julgustab neid mõtlema, kuidas koht mõjutab kultuuri ja ühiskonda
Kaart 1: Cherokee eemaldamise teed, 1838-1839.
• Tekst: Esmased ja sekundaarsed allikate näidud pakuvad sisu ja sädemekriitilist analüüsi.
Lugemine 1: “Te ei saa jääda sinna, kus te praegu olete”: Cherokee vastupanu ja ümberpaigutamine 1830. aastatel.
• Visuaalsed tõendid: Õpilased kritiseerivad ja analüüsivad visuaalseid tõendeid, et lahendada küsimusi ja toetada oma teooriaid selle teema kohta.
Foto 1: Major Ridge'i maja ja Chieftains Museum, 2008.

& quot; Kõik kokku panna & quot; tegevused

  • Tegevus 1: uurige Ameerika India ajalugu oma piirkonnas
  • Tegevus 2: aruanne ümberpaigutamisest väljaspool Cherokee kogemust
  • Tegevus 3: Cherokee hääled vastupanu sulgemiseks

Rahvuspargi teenistus
Rahvuspargi teenistus haldab raja osi läbi rahvuste ajaloolise raja Trail of Tears. Agentuuri veebisait pakub veebikülastajatele teavet kolimise ajaloo ja ajalooliste paikade isikliku külastamise kohta.

Õpetamine ajalooliste paikadega, Pisarate rada ja Cherokee rahvuse sunniviisiline ümberpaigutamine tunniplaan
Õpetage sarnaseid oskusi ja teemasid selle pikema TwHP tunniplaaniga Cherokee kolimise kohta. See õppetund sisaldab täiendavaid oskuste arendamise uuringuid ja ainulaadseid materjale, sealhulgas esmaseid allikaid ajaloolise John Rossi maja ja Tennesee Rattlesnake Springs'i kohta. See õppetund avaldati 2004. aastal ja sellel põhineb pisarate rada välgutund.

Cherokee rahvas
Cherokee Nation (föderaalselt tunnustatud hõim) pakub oma ametlikul hõimude veebisaidil veebiavarusi Cherokee ajaloo kohta, sealhulgas pisarate rada ja kaasaegseid probleeme.

Cherokee indiaanlaste idabänd
Cherokee indiaanlaste idabänd (föderaalselt tunnustatud hõim) pakub oma hõimude veebisaidil kaasaegseid muresid ning teavet oma kultuuri ja ajaloo kohta Cherokee India muuseumi ja Cherokee Preservation Foundationi veebisaitidel.

Cherokee indiaanlaste Ühendatud Keetoowah bänd Oklahomas
Cherokee indiaanlaste Ühendatud Keetoowah Band (föderaalselt tunnustatud hõim) pakub veebipõhiseid esseesid Cherokee ajaloo ja ressursside kohta, et uurida selle kultuuripärandit siin või klõpsake siin, et külastada UKB John Hair'i kultuurikeskuse ja muuseumi veebisaiti.

Cherokee indiaanlaste muuseum
Tšerokki indiaanlaste muuseum pakub töötubasid, eksponaate ja üritusi, mis mälestavad tšerokee ajalugu. Muuseumi kohta leiate teavet Internetist.

Cherokee pärandikeskus
Cherokee pärandi keskus loodi Cherokee riikliku ajalooühingu poolt ja pakub ressursse Cherokee ajaloo uurimiseks ja säilitamiseks. Avastage keskuse missioon ja õppige Cherokee kultuuri kohta rohkem selle veebisaidi kaudu.

Pisarate ühendus
Pisarate rada pakub oma veebisaidi kaudu veebipõhiseid ressursse ja taustateavet Pisarate raja kohta. Ajalugu pakkudes sisaldab assotsiatsiooni sait ka linke väliste veebisaitide jaoks erinevate põlisrahvaste rühmade jaoks, kes kogesid pisarate rada.

Chieftains Museum/Major Ridge Home
Major Ridge'i kodus asub ka Chieftains'i muuseum ja nende veebisait pakub rikkalikku teavet mehe enda kohta koos vara ajaloo ja laiema Cherokee kogemusega.

Kongressi raamatukogu
Kongressi raamatukogus on India kolimisseadusega seotud esmaste dokumentide kogum, mis on otseselt seotud pisaratega. Need dokumendid leiate LOC veebisaidilt.

See rahvuspargi teenistuse tunniplaan põhineb ajalooliste paikade riikliku registri nominendil "Chieftains" Major Ridge House'is Roomas, Gruusias. Tunniplaan avaldati 2018. aastal. Selle tunni kirjutasid hariduskonsultant Kathleen Hunter ja rahvuspargi teenistuse ajaloolane Katie Orr koos konsultantide Sarah Curtise ja Marilyn Harperiga. Chieftains muuseumi töötajad andsid eelnõude kohta täiendavat tagasisidet. Selle koostasid NPS Cultural Resourcesi töötajad Washingtonis.

Avastage pisarate rada: välgutund ajalooliste paikade õpetamisest põhineb varasemal väljaandel Teaching with Historic Places, Pisarate rada ja Cherokee rahvuse sunniviisiline ümberpaigutamine avaldatud 2004. Arendatud ja säilitades koha tõendusmaterjalina mudeli, mahutab see 60-minutilise ploki ja on kooskõlas ühiste põhistandarditega. See õppetund on üks seeriast, mis toob õpilastele üle maailma koha ja ajalooliste paikade jõu.


Ameerika põliselanikud 19. sajandil

Tolleaegsete Ameerika valitsejate (näiteks Jefferson Davis ja Andrew Johnson) seisukohast läksid nad seaduslikult põlisameeriklaste maade valdusesse. Viisid, kuidas nad neid maid omastasid, olid aga suuresti kuritahtlikud. Sajandi alguses määras Ameerika Ühendriikide föderaalvalitsus viis põliselanike hõimu-Chicksaw, Chocktaw, Muscogee-Creek, Seminole ja Cherokee. "Viis tsiviliseeritud hõimu."

Nende arengutase võrreldes teiste põliselanike populatsioonidega, nende koostöö föderaalvalitsusega ja Euroopa kultuuri omaksvõtt andsid neile eelise eristaatuse saamiseks Ameerika Ühendriikide noores liiduvabariigis. Need hõimud olid täna USA kaguosas määranud territooriume, nautides teatavat autonoomiat.

Seega säilitasid nad oma vana hõimukorralduse viisi, olles samal ajal integreeritud Ameerika majandusmudeliga, harrastades Aafrika orjadel põhinevat suuremahulist põllumajandust. Kaubanduse laienemine ja kasvav vajadus istanduste jaoks vajaliku maa järele lükkasid aga ameeriklased laienema läände. Selle laienemise sihiks olid viie hõimu territooriumid. USA president Thomas Jefferson uskus, et põlisameeriklaste integreerimisel Ameerika kultuurimudelisse, sealhulgas põllumajandusmudelisse, vabanevad hõimud jahipidamiseks kasutatavatest aladest, vallutades hiljem Ameerika maad.

Jeffersoni ennustus täitus osaliselt ja vähesed hõimud olid valmis oma kodumaad hülgama ning USA võimud olid sunnitud võtma üha karmimaid meetmeid põliselanike eemaldamiseks soovitud aladelt. Esimesed ideed indiaanlaste kinkimiseks Mississippi jõest ida pool jõest läänes asuvaid võrdse väärtusega territooriume ilmusid 1803. aastal.

Esimene rakendamine toimus aastal 1817, kui tšerokki indiaanlased nõustusid loovutama kaks osa oma maast läänes võrdse suurusega maatükkide eest. Selle meetodi piiratud edu tõi kaasa muude meetodite ilmnemise, nii tõhusad kui ka kuritarvitavad. Ameerika Kongressis algasid arutelud hõimude autonoomsete alade legitiimsuse üle.

Tundus, et Ameerika Ühendriikide territoriaalse terviklikkuse argument on vastu võetud enamiku endiste kolooniate juhtide poolt, alustades põlisameeriklaste mis tahes riigikorralduse kaotamisest. Samuti ei lubatud nende hõimude liikmetel Ameerika pinnal kinnisvara omada Ameerika kodakondsust omamata Ameerika kodakondsust.

Seda õigusraamistikku kasutas Ameerika Ühendriikide juhtkond India territooriumide vallutamiseks. President James Monroe ametiajal alustas riigisekretär John C. Calhoun plaani korraldada põliselanike eemaldamine mõjutatud piirkondadest. Nii sai Calhoun 1824. aastal presidendilt plaani elluviimiseks rohelise tule ning 1825. aastal loodi selleks Arkansase territoorium ja India territoorium. Need on piirkonnad, kuhu Ameerika põliselanikke asustati. Tulevane president John Quincy Adams tutvustas kongressis Calhouni plaani. Kuigi tema plaan näitas selgelt, et ameeriklasi kolitakse vabatahtlikult, olid Gruusia delegaadid projektile vastu.


Cherokee eemaldamine ja pisarate rada

1820. aastateks oli tšerokide rahvas näinud kolooniavalitsuste ja Ameerika Ühendriikide valitsusega sõlmitud lepingute kaudu kadumas suurt osa nende esivanemate maadest (praeguses USA kaguosas). Lootes vältida kultuurilist hävitamist, viisid mitmed tšerokide juhid - sealhulgas tšerokide rahvuse peamine pealik John Ross ja tšerokide nõukogu esimees John Ridge - oma rahva reformiperioodi, mida nimetatakse tšerokide renessansiks. Aastaks 1830 oli Cherokee rahvas võtnud kasutusele kirjakeele ja võltsinud Ameerika Ühendriikide eeskuju järgiva põhiseaduse koos tegevjuhi, esindusvalitsuse ja Cherokee seadusi täitvate kohtutega. Paljud tšerokid olid pöördunud protestantlikku kristlusse, elanud tuumaperekondades ja harinud maad - mõnikord orjastatud Aafrika ameeriklaste tööga.

Samal perioodil tõusis USA kodanike seas „Manifest Destiny” - usk, et valged ameeriklased on Jumala valitud rahvas, kelle ta valis, et levitada Ameerika Ühendriike idast läänerannikule, „merest särava mereni”. Andrew Jackson, kuulus “India võitleja”, valiti presidendiks 1828. aastal, peamiselt lubadusega viia India hõimud läände, et võimaldada valge tsivilisatsiooni edenemist. Jacksoni seisukohast julgustades võtsid Gruusia osariikide seadusandjad vastu seadused, mis kaotasid Cherokee valitsuse, tühistasid Cherokee seadused ja lõid lotosüsteemi, mille abil valged grusiinid võisid tšerookide kodud ja maa seaduslikult ära võtta. Aastal 1830 võttis Kongress vastu India kolimisseaduse, eraldades raha indiaanlaste sunniviisiliseks eemaldamiseks kaguosast Mississippi jõest läänes asuvatele maadele.

Cherokee juhid ei suutnud kokku leppida, kuidas reageerida. Aastal 1835 kasutasid valitsusläbirääkijad ära nende fraktsionalismi ja veensid väikest gruppi, eesotsas John Ridge'i ja tema isa major Ridge'iga, allkirjastama New Echota lepingu, mis käskis tšerokidel end kodudest eemaldada ja asuda maale Mississippi jõgi. See esmane allikakomplekt kasutab dokumente, pilte ja muusikat, et paljastada Cherokee eemaldamise lugu, mis on osa suuremast loost, mida tuntakse kui pisarate rada. Tuhanded põliselanikud - Chickasaw, Creek Choctaw, Seminole ja Cherokee - kannatasid selle sunniviisilise ümberpaigutamise tõttu.


Sisu

Ameerika riigijuhid revolutsioonilisel ja USA alguses arutasid, kas põlisameeriklasi tuleks kohelda üksikisikute või rahvustena. [15]

Benjamin Franklin Muuda

10. mail 1775 kontinentaalkongressile esitatud kavandis "Konföderatsiooni kavandatud artiklid" kutsus Benjamin Franklin sõlmima "igavese liidu" sündivate rahvaste indiaanlastega, eriti kuue irokeeside konföderatsiooni rahvaga: [16] [17]

XI artikkel. Igavese ründe- ja kaitseliidu sõlmimiseks tuleb niipea kui võimalik koos Kuue Rahvaga kindlaks teha nende piirid ja kindlustada neile nende maa, et neid ei rünnataks, ega ka edaspidi teha neist era- või kolooniaostusid. hea, ega mingit lepingut maade jaoks sõlmida, vaid indiaanlaste suure nõukogu Onondaga ja üldkongressi vahel. Ka kõigi teiste indiaanlaste piirid ja maad selgitatakse välja ja tagatakse neile samal viisil ning isikud, kes on määratud nende sekka elama nõuetekohastesse ringkondadesse, kes hoolitsevad selle eest, et vältida ebaõiglust nendega kauplemisel, ning võimaldada meie üldkulud aeg -ajalt väikeste tarvikutega nende isiklike soovide ja hädade leevendamiseks. Ja kõik ostud nendelt tuleb teha kongressilt Ameerika Ühendriikide kolooniate üldise eelise ja kasu nimel.

Muuda Thomas Jefferson

Tema oma Märkmeid Virginia osariigi kohta (1785) kaitses Thomas Jefferson Ameerika põliselanike kultuuri ja imestas, kuidas Virginia hõimud "ei allunud kunagi ühelegi seadusele, sunniviisile ega valitsuse varju" oma "moraalse õige ja vale tunnetuse" tõttu. [18] [19] Ta kirjutas hiljem samal aastal markii de Chastellux'le: "Usun, et indiaanlane on siis oma keha ja vaimuga võrdne valgemehega". [20] Jeffersoni soov oli Francis Paul Prucha tõlgendusel, et põlisameeriklased seguneksid Euroopa ameeriklastega ja saaksid üheks rahvaks. [21] [22] Selle eesmärgi saavutamiseks presidendina pakkus Jefferson mõnele India riigile USA kodakondsust ja tegi ettepaneku pakkuda neile laenu kaubanduse hõlbustamiseks. [23] [24]

George Washington Muuda

President George Washington ütles oma 1790. aasta pöördumises Seneca rahvale, kes nimetas põhiseaduse-eelseid India maamüügiraskusi „kurjadeks”, et juhtumit muudeti ja lubati kaitsta põliselanike „õigusi”. [25] [26] Märtsis ja aprillis 1792 kohtus Washington Philadelphias - sealhulgas irokeesides - 50 hõimupealikuga, et arutada nende ja USA vahelise sõpruse tugevdamist. [27] Hiljem samal aastal rõhutas Washington oma neljandas iga -aastases sõnumis Kongressile vajadust luua rahu, usaldus ja kaubandus põlisameeriklastega: [28]

Ma ei saa India asjade teemast kõrvale heita, ilma et oleksite uuesti soovitanud teie jaoks asjakohasemate sätete andmist seadustele energia andmiseks kogu meie sisepiiril ja indiaanlaste pahameele toimepanemise piiramiseks, ilma milleta peavad kõik Vaikse ookeani piirkonna plaanid osutuma eitavaks. Rahva ja heade naabruskondade säilimisele aitaks kaasa ka pädevate hüvedega kvalifitseeritud ja usaldusväärsete isikute töölevõtmine nende esindajatena. Kui lisaks nendele abinõudele saaks välja töötada abikõlbliku plaani tsivilisatsiooni edendamiseks sõbralike hõimude seas ja nendega kauplemise jätkamiseks nende soovidega võrdses ulatuses ning eeskirjade alusel, mis on arvutatud nende surumise ja väljapressimise eest kaitsmiseks, selle mõju nende huvide kinnistamisel meie huvidega ei saanud olla märkimisväärne. [29]

Oma seitsmendas iga -aastases sõnumis Kongressile 1795. aastal andis Washington teada, et kui USA valitsus soovib rahu indiaanlastega, peab ta käituma rahumeelselt, kui USA soovib, et indiaanlaste haarangud peatuksid, peavad lõppema ka Ameerika „piiriäärsete elanike“ reidid. [30] [31]

Iseseisvusdeklaratsioon Muuda

Iseseisvusdeklaratsiooni süüdistuste osas on Ameerika Ühendriikide põlisasukatele viidatud kui "halastamatutele India metslastele", mis peegeldab tol ajal levinud seisukohta.

Varased kongressi toimingud Redigeeri

Konföderatsiooni kongress võttis vastu 1787. aasta Loode -määruse (USA territoriaalse laienemise pretsedent leiab aset veel aastaid), kutsudes kaitsma põliselanike "omandit, õigusi ja vabadust" [32], USA 1777. aasta põhiseadust (artikkel I , 8. jagu) pani kongressi vastutama India hõimudega kaubanduse reguleerimise eest. 1790. aastal võttis USA uus kongress vastu India mittevahekorra seaduse (uuendatud ja muudetud aastatel 1793, 1796, 1799, 1802 ja 1834), et kaitsta ja kodifitseerida tunnustatud hõimude maaõigusi. [33]

Presidendina töötas Thomas Jefferson kaugeleulatuva India poliitika, millel oli kaks peamist eesmärki. Ta tahtis kinnitada, et põlisrahvad (mitte välisriigid) on uue USAga tihedalt seotud, kuna pidas selle julgeolekut esmatähtsaks. [34] Samuti soovis ta neid "tsiviliseerida", et nad võtaksid omaks pigem põllumajandusliku, mitte jahimeeste-korilaste elustiili. [21] Need eesmärgid saavutatakse lepingute ja kaubanduse arendamise kaudu. [35]

Jefferson edendas algselt Ameerika poliitikat, mis julgustas põlisameeriklasi assimileeruma või "tsiviliseeruma". [36] Ta tegi järjepidevaid jõupingutusi presidendina paljude indiaanlaste hõimude sõpruse ja koostöö võitmiseks, väljendades korduvalt oma soovi valgete ja indiaanlaste ühtse rahva järele [37] nagu oma 3. novembri 1802. aasta kirjas Seneca vaimsele juhile Handsome Lake. :

Jätka siis, vend, suurel reformatsioonil, mille oled ette võtnud. Kõigis oma ettevõtetes oma rahva hüvanguks võite loota enesekindlalt Ameerika Ühendriikide abile ja kaitsele ning siirale ja innukusele, millega ma ise olen selle inimliku töö edendamisel elavdatud. Te olete meie vennad samal maal, mida soovime teie õitsengule, nagu vennad peaksid tegema. Hüvastijätt. [38]

Kui Cherokee Nationi Ülemlinnade delegatsioon tegi Jeffersonile lobitööd täieliku ja võrdse kodakondsuse saamiseks, mida George Washington lubas Ameerika territooriumil elavatele indiaanlastele, näitas tema vastus, et ta on valmis andma kodakondsuse neile India riikidele, kes seda taotlesid. [39] Oma kaheksandas aasta sõnumis Kongressile 8. novembril 1808 esitas ta nägemuse valgete ja indiaanlaste ühtsusest:

Meie India naabrite juures on avalik rahu pidevalt säilinud. Ja üldiselt, veendumusest, et me peame neid osaks iseendast ja austame siiralt nende õigusi ja huve, kasvab India hõimude kiindumus iga päev. ja palub meile piisavalt õiglust ja sõprust nende vastu. [O] ükski tšerokide rahva kahest suurest jaoskonnast pole praegu kaalumas Ameerika Ühendriikide kodakondsuse taotlemist ning meie äia ja valitsuse samastamist sellisel progressiivsel viisil, nagu me kõige paremini arvame. [40]

Kuid nagu näitavad mõned teised Jeffersoni kirjutised, oli ta indiaanlaste assimilatsiooni suhtes kahepalgeline ning kasutas sõnu "hävitada" ja "kustutada" hõimude kohta, kes olid Ameerika laienemise vastu ja olid valmis oma maade eest võitlema. [41] Jefferson kavatses muuta India elustiili jahipidamisest ja kogumisest põllumajandusesse, suuresti "ulukite vähenemise tõttu, mis muudab nende elatise ebapiisavaks". [42] Ta eeldas, et põllumajanduse muutmine muudab nad kaupade osas sõltuvusse valgete ameeriklastega ja loobub tõenäolisemalt oma maast või lubab end viia Mississippi jõest lääne poole. [43] [44] 1803. aastal kirjas William Henry Harrisonile kirjutas Jefferson: [45]

Kui mõni hõim peaks olema piisavalt rumal, et igal ajal luukur kätte võtta, oleks kogu selle hõimu riigi haaramine ja nende rahu ainsa tingimusena sõitmine üle Mississippi teistele eeskujuks ja meie edendamiseks. lõplik konsolideerimine. [46]

Selles kirjas rääkis Jefferson indiaanlaste kaitsmisest valgete toime pandud ebaõigluse eest:

Meie süsteem on elada igaveses rahus indiaanlastega, kasvatada neilt kiindumust, kõike õiglast ja liberaalset, mida saame nende heaks teha. mõistlikult ja pakkudes neile tõhusat kaitset meie oma inimeste eksimuste eest. [47]

Vastavalt 27. veebruari 1819. aasta lepingule pakkus USA valitsus kodakondsust ja 640 aakrit (260 ha) maad perekonna kohta Mississippist ida pool elanud tšerokidele. [48] ​​[49] [50] Mõnikord osteti põlisameeriklaste maad lepingu alusel või sunniviisiliselt. Maadevahetuse idee, et põlisameeriklased loovutavad oma maa Mississippist ida pool, vastutasuks sama palju territooriumi jõest läänes, pakkus esmakordselt välja Jefferson 1803. aastal ja lisati esmakordselt lepingutesse 1817. aastal (aastaid pärast Jeffersonit) eesistumine). 1830. aasta India kolimisseadus sisaldas seda kontseptsiooni. [44]

President James Monroe juhtimisel mõtles sõjaminister John C. Calhoun välja esimesed India väljasaatmise plaanid. Monroe kiitis Calhouni plaanid heaks 1824. Senat võttis Monroe taotluse vastu ja palus Calhounil koostada seaduseelnõu, mille Gruusia delegatsioon tappis Esindajatekojas. President John Quincy Adams võttis endale Calhoun-Monroe poliitika ja oli otsustanud eemaldada indiaanlased mittevägivaldsete vahenditega [51] [52] Gruusia keeldus Adamsi taotlusega nõustumast, sundides presidenti sõlmima lepingu Cherokees'iga, millega Gruusia antakse. Cherokee maandub. [53] 26. juulil 1827 võttis tšerokide rahvas vastu kirjaliku põhiseaduse (eeskujul Ameerika Ühendriikide oma), mis kuulutas, et nad on iseseisev riik, kellel on jurisdiktsioon oma maade üle. Gruusia väitis, et ei suhtu suveräänsesse riiki oma territooriumil, ja kinnitas oma võimu Cherokee territooriumi üle. [54] Kui Andrew Jackson sai äsja korraldatud Demokraatliku Partei kandidaadina presidendiks, nõustus ta, et indiaanlased tuleks sundida vahetama oma idapoolsed maad lääneriikide vastu (sealhulgas ümberpaigutamine) ja jõustas jõuliselt India väljasaatmise. [55] [53]

Kuigi India väljasaatmine oli populaarne poliitika, oli see vastu ka juriidilistel ja moraalsetel põhjustel, kuid see oli vastuolus föderaalvalitsuse ja põlisrahvaste vahelise ametliku ja tavapärase diplomaatilise suhtlusega. Ralph Waldo Emerson kirjutas laialdaselt avaldatud kirja "Protest tšeroki indiaanlaste Gruusia osariigist väljaviimise vastu" 1838. aastal, vahetult enne tšerokide kolimist. Emerson kritiseerib valitsust ja selle väljasaatmispoliitikat, öeldes, et väljasaatmisleping oli ebaseaduslik, see oli "näiv leping", mida USA valitsus ei peaks järgima. [56] Ta kirjeldab eemaldumist kui „igasuguse usu ja vooruste hülgamist, sellist õigluse eitamist… rahva suhtlemisel oma liitlaste ja hoolealustega pärast maa loomist… üldine meeleheite, uskmatuse väljendus, et igasugune hea tahe koguneb pettuse ja röövi toimepanemise eest esitatud protestist nendel meestel, kelle poole me loomulikult abi ja nõu küsime. " [57] Emerson lõpetab oma kirja, öeldes, et see ei tohiks olla poliitiline küsimus, ning kutsub president Martin Van Bureni tungivalt üles takistama tšerokide kolimist. Ka teised inimesed ja ühiskondlikud organisatsioonid kogu riigis olid väljasaatmise vastu. [58]

Kohalikud rühmitused kujundasid ümber oma valitsused, koostasid põhiseadused ja seadustikud ning saatsid delegaadid Washingtoni, et pidada läbirääkimisi poliitikate ja lepingute üle, et säilitada nende autonoomia ja tagada föderaalselt lubatud kaitse valgete osariikide eest. [59] Nad arvasid, et aklimatiseerumine, nagu USA soovis, peatab väljasaatmispoliitika ja loob paremad suhted föderaalvalitsuse ja ümbritsevate osariikidega.

Ameerika põliselanikel olid väljasaatmise osas erinevad vaated. Kuigi enamik soovis jääda oma kodumaale ja teha kõik, et seda tagada, uskusid teised, et kolimine mittevalgele alale oli nende ainus võimalus oma autonoomia ja kultuuri säilitamiseks. [60] USA kasutas seda jaotust väljasaatmislepingute sõlmimiseks (sageli) vähemusrühmadega, kes olid veendunud, et väljasaatmine on nende inimeste jaoks parim valik. [61] Neid lepinguid ei tunnistanud sageli enamik rahvast. Kui kongress ratifitseeris väljasaatmislepingu, võis föderaalvalitsus kasutada põlisrahvaste eemaldamiseks sõjalist jõudu, kui nad olid lepingus ettenähtud kuupäevaks kolinud (või alustanud liikumist). [ tsiteerimine vajalik ]

Kui Andrew Jackson sai 1829. aastal Ameerika Ühendriikide presidendiks, võttis tema valitsus India lahkumise suhtes karmi suuna [62] Jackson loobus oma eelkäijate poliitikast käsitleda indiaanihõimusid eraldiseisvate rahvustena, jälitades agressiivselt kõiki indiaanlasi Mississippist ida pool, kes nõudsid põhiseaduslikku suveräänsust. ja sõltumatus riigi seadustest. Nad taheti viia reservatsioonidesse India territooriumil, Mississippist läänes (praegune Oklahoma), kus nad võisid eksisteerida ilma riigi sekkumiseta. Jacksoni palvel alustas kongress arutelu India väljasaatmise seaduseelnõu üle. Pärast ägedaid erimeelsusi võttis senat seaduseelnõu vastu 28–19 häälega, mille parlament oli napilt, 102–97 vastu võtnud. Jackson allkirjastas India kolimisseaduse 30. mail 1830. [63]

Sel aastal elas enamik viiest tsiviliseeritud hõimust - Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Seminole ja Cherokee - Mississippist ida pool. India kolimisseadusega rakendati föderaalvalitsuse poliitikat oma India elanike suhtes, viies põliselanike hõimud Mississippist ida pool jõest läänes asuvatele maadele. Kuigi seadus ei andnud luba põlisrahvaste hõimude sunniviisiliseks eemaldamiseks, võimaldas see presidendil pidada läbirääkimisi maade vahetamise lepingute üle. [64]

Choctaw Muuda

27. septembril 1830 allkirjastas Choctaw Dancing Rabbit Creeki lepingu ja temast sai esimene põliselanike hõim, kes eemaldati. Leping oli üks suurimaid maaülekandeid USA valitsuse ja põliselanike vahel, mis ei olnud sõja tulemus. Choctaw sõlmis oma allesjäänud traditsioonilised kodumaad, avades need Euroopa-Ameerika asumiseks Mississippi territooriumile. Kui hõim jõudis Little Rockini, nimetas pealik oma retke "pisarate ja surma jäljeks". [65]

1831. aastal oli prantsuse ajaloolane ja politoloog Alexis de Tocqueville tunnistajaks kurnatud rühmale Choctawi meestest, naistest ja lastest, kes tulid metsast välja erakordselt külmal talvel Tennessee osariigis Memphise lähedal, [66] olles teel Mississippi, et neid laadida. aurulaev. Ta kirjutas,

Kogu stseenis valitses hävingu ja hävingu õhk, mis reetis lõpliku ja tagasivõtmatu hüvastijätu, mida ei saanud vaadata ilma, et süda oleks väänatud. Indiaanlased olid rahulikud, kuid sünged ja vaikivad. Oli üks, kes oskas inglise keelt ja kelle kohta ma küsisin, miks Chactad oma riigist lahkuvad. "Et olla vaba," vastas ta, ei saanud temalt kunagi muud põhjust. Meie. vaadata väljasaatmist. üks kuulsamaid ja iidsemaid Ameerika rahvaid. [67]

Cherokee Edit

Kuigi India kolimisseadus muutis hõimude liikumise vabatahtlikuks, kuritarvitasid valitsusametnikud seda sageli. Tuntuim näide on New Echota leping, millele kirjutas 29. detsembril 1835 alla kahekümne cherokee hõimu liikme (mitte hõimu juhtkonna) väike fraktsioon. [68] Hiljem süüdistas suurem osa tšerokidest fraktsiooni ja lepingut. hõimu sunniviisiliseks ümberpaigutamiseks 1838. aastal. [69] Marsil suri hinnanguliselt 4000 Cherokee, mida tuntakse kui Pisarate rada. [70] Misjonitööde korraldaja Jeremiah Evarts kutsus Cherokee rahvust üles viima asja USA ülemkohtusse. [71]

Aastal arutas juhtumit Marshalli kohus Cherokee Nation versus Georgia (1831), kuid keeldus otsustamast sisuliselt, kui kohus kuulutas, et põliselanike hõimud ei ole suveräänsed riigid ega saa USA kohtutes "hagi jätkata". [72] [73] Peakohtunik Marshalli aastal kirjutatud arvamuses Worcester versus Georgia (1832) ei olnud üksikutel osariikidel Ameerika indiaaniasjades volitusi. [74] [75]

Gruusia osariik trotsis ülemkohtu otsust, [74] ning valgete asunike ja maaspekulantide soov India maade järele jätkus lakkamatult [76], mõned valged väitsid, et indiaanlased ohustavad rahu ja julgeolekut. Gruusia seadusandja võttis vastu seaduse, mis keelas valgetel pärast 31. märtsi 1831 elada India territooriumil, ilma osariigi litsentsita, mis välistas valgete misjonäride, kes olid India väljasaatmise vastu. [77] [78]

Seminooli redigeerimine

Seminole keeldus oma Florida maadelt lahkumast 1835. aastal, põhjustades teise Seminooli sõja. Osceola oli Seminooli juht rahva võitluses väljasaatmise vastu. Evergladesis asuv Osceola ja tema bänd kasutasid üllatusrünnakuid USA armee alistamiseks paljudes lahingutes. 1837. aastal vallutati Osceola USA kindrali Thomas Jesupi käsul kahekordselt, kui Osceola sattus vaherahu lipu alla, et pidada rahu läbirääkimisi Fort Peytoni lähedal. [79] Osceola suri vanglas haigustesse, sõda põhjustas USAs üle 1500 surma ja maksis valitsusele 20 miljonit dollarit. [80] Mõned seminoolid rändasid sügavamale Evergladesesse ja teised liikusid läände. Väljasaatmine jätkus ja maa pärast puhkes hulk sõdu. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ]

Muskogee (oja) Muuda

Pärast Fort Jacksoni ja Washingtoni lepingute sõlmimist piirdus Muscogee väikese maatükiga tänapäeva Alabama idaosa keskosas. Creeki rahvusnõukogu allkirjastas Cusseta lepingu 1832. Enamik Muscogee viidi territooriumile Pisarateraja ajal 1834. aastal, kuigi mõned jäid maha. Kuigi 1836. aasta Creeki sõda lõpetas valitsuse katsed veenda Creeki elanikke vabatahtlikult lahkuma, ei sunnitud sõjas mitte osalenud kreeke läände (nagu teisedki). Creeki elanikkond paigutati laagritesse ja öeldi, et nad paigutatakse varsti ümber. Paljud Creeki juhid olid kiirest lahkumisest üllatunud, kuid ei suutnud selle vastu vaidlustada. The 16,000 Creeks were organized into five detachments who were to be sent to Fort Gibson. The Creek leaders did their best to negotiate better conditions, and succeeded in obtaining wagons and medicine. To prepare for the relocation, Creeks began to deconstruct their spiritual lives they burned piles of lightwood over their ancestors' graves to honor their memories, and polished the sacred plates which would travel at the front of each group. They also prepared financially, selling what they could not bring. Many were swindled by local merchants out of valuable possessions (including land), and the military had to intervene. The detachments began moving west in September 1836, facing harsh conditions. Despite their preparations, the detachments faced bad roads, worse weather, and a lack of drinkable water. When all five detachments reached their destination, they recorded their death toll. The first detachment, with 2,318 Creeks, had 78 deaths the second had 3,095 Creeks, with 37 deaths. The third had 2,818 Creeks, and 12 deaths the fourth, 2,330 Creeks and 36 deaths. The fifth detachment, with 2,087 Creeks, had 25 deaths. [81]

Friends and Brothers – By permission of the Great Spirit above, and the voice of the people, I have been made President of the United States, and now speak to you as your Father and friend, and request you to listen. Your warriors have known me long. You know I love my white and red children, and always speak with a straight, and not with a forked tongue that I have always told you the truth . Where you now are, you and my white children are too near to each other to live in harmony and peace. Your game is destroyed, and many of your people will not work and till the earth. Beyond the great River Mississippi, where a part of your nation has gone, your Father has provided a country large enough for all of you, and he advises you to remove to it. There your white brothers will not trouble you they will have no claim to the land, and you can live upon it you and all your children, as long as the grass grows or the water runs, in peace and plenty. It will be yours forever. For the improvements in the country where you now live, and for all the stock which you cannot take with you, your Father will pay you a fair price .

Chickasaw Edit

Unlike other tribes, who exchanged lands, the Chickasaw were to receive financial compensation of $3 million from the United States for their lands east of the Mississippi River. [82] [83] They reached an agreement to purchase of land from the previously-removed Choctaw in 1836 after a bitter five-year debate, paying the Chocktaw $530,000 for the westernmost Choctaw land. [84] [85] Most of the Chickasaw moved in 1837 and 1838. [86] The $3 million owed to the Chickasaw by the U.S. went unpaid for nearly 30 years. [87]

Aftermath Edit

The Five Civilized Tribes were resettled in the new Indian Territory. [88] The Cherokee occupied the northeast corner of the territory and a 70-mile-wide (110 km) strip of land in Kansas on its border with the territory. [89] Some indigenous nations resisted the forced migration more strongly. [90] [91] The few who stayed behind eventually formed tribal groups, [92] including the Eastern Band of Cherokee (based in North Carolina), [93] [94] [95] the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians, [96] [97] the Seminole Tribe of Florida, [98] [99] [100] and the Creeks in Alabama [101] (including the Poarch Band). [102] [103] [104]

North Edit

Tribes in the Old Northwest were smaller and more fragmented than the Five Civilized Tribes, so the treaty and emigration process was more piecemeal. [105] Bands of Shawnee, [106] Ottawa, Potawatomi, [107] Sauk, and Meskwaki (Fox) signed treaties and relocated to the Indian Territory. [108] In 1832, the Sauk leader Black Hawk led a band of Sauk and Fox back to their lands in Illinois the U.S. Army and Illinois militia defeated Black Hawk and his warriors in the Black Hawk War, and the Sauk and Fox were relocated to present-day Iowa. [109]

Tribes further east, such as the already-displaced Lenape (Delaware tribe), Kickapoo and Shawnee, were removed from Indiana, Michigan, and Ohio during the 1820s. [110] The Potawatomi were forced out of Wisconsin and Michigan in late 1838, and were resettled in Kansas Territory. Many Miami were resettled in the Indian Territory during the 1840s. [111] Communities in present-day Ohio were forced to move to Louisiana, which was then controlled by Spain. [112]

In the Second Treaty of Buffalo Creek (1838), the Senecas transferred all their land in New York (except for one small reservation) in exchange for 200,000 acres (810 km 2 ) of land in Indian Territory. The federal government would be responsible for the removal of the Senecas who opted to go west, and the Ogden Land Company would acquire their New York lands. The lands were sold by government officials, however, and the proceeds were deposited in the U.S. Treasury. The Senecas asserted that they had been defrauded, and sued for redress in the Court of Claims. The case was not resolved until 1898, when the United States awarded $1,998,714.46 in compensation to "the New York Indians". [113] The U.S. signed treaties with the Senecas and the Tonawanda Senecas in 1842 and 1857, respectively. Under the treaty of 1857, the Tonawandas renounced all claim to lands west of the Mississippi in exchange for the right to buy back the Tonawanda Reservation from the Ogden Land Company. [114] Over a century later, the Senecas purchased a 9-acre (3.6 ha) plot (part of their original reservation) in downtown Buffalo to build the Seneca Buffalo Creek Casino. [115]

South Edit

Southern removals
Rahvas Population before removal Treaty and year Major emigration Total removed Number remaining Deaths during removal Deaths from warfare
Choctaw 19,554 [116] + white citizens of the Choctaw Nation + 500 Black slaves Dancing Rabbit Creek (1830) 1831–1836 15,000 [117] 5,000–6,000 [118] [119] [120] 2,000–4,000+ (cholera) mitte ühtegi
Creek (Muscogee) 22,700 + 900 Black slaves [121] Cusseta (1832) 1834–1837 19,600 [122] Several hundred 3,500 (disease after removal) [123] Unknown (Creek War of 1836)
Chickasaw 4,914 + 1,156 Black slaves [124] Pontotoc Creek (1832) 1837–1847 over 4,000 [124] Several hundred 500–800 mitte ühtegi
Cherokee 16,542 + 201 married white + 1,592 Black slaves [125] New Echota (1835) 1836–1838 16,000 [126] 1,500 2,000–4,000 [127] [128] mitte ühtegi
Seminole 3,700–5,000 [129] + fugitive slaves Payne's Landing (1832) 1832–1842 2,833 [130] –4,000 [131] 250 [130] –500 [132] 700 (Second Seminole War)

Historical views of Indian removal have been reevaluated since that time. Widespread contemporary acceptance of the policy, due in part to the popular embrace of the concept of manifest destiny, has given way to a more-somber perspective. The removals have been attributed by historians to paternalism, [12] [13] ethnic cleansing, [14] and genocide. [4]

Jackson's reputation Edit

Andrew Jackson's reputation has been negatively impacted by his treatment of the Indians. Historians who admire Jackson's strong presidential leadership, such as Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., would gloss over the Indian issue in a footnote. In 1969, Francis Paul Prucha wrote that Jackson's removal of the Five Civilized Tribes from the hostile white environment of the Old South to Oklahoma probably saved them. [133] Jackson was sharply attacked by political scientist Michael Rogin and historian Howard Zinn during the 1970s, primarily on this issue Zinn called him an "exterminator of Indians". [134] [135] According to historians Paul R. Bartrop and Steven L. Jacobs, however, Jackson's policies do not meet the criteria for physical or cultural genocide. [13]


May 28, 1830 CE: Indian Removal Act

On May 28, 1830, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act, beginning the forced relocation of thousands of Native Americans in what became known as the Trail of Tears.

Geography, Human Geography, Social Studies, U.S. History

Native American Removal from the Southeast

The map shows the routes of the five southeastern tribes that were forced to leave their homelands in the Southeast and live in Indian Territory in what is now Oklahoma. A surprising number of Americans opposed Indian removal. (The first bill in Congress passed by only 103 votes to 97.) But the demand for new lands was high, and former Army officers such as Andrew Jackson used their experiences as Indian fighters to gain political popularity and get elected to office.

Map by National Geographic Society

to desert or leave entirely.

having to do with ancestors or historical background.

to bring out of a savage or uneducated state.

legislative branch of the government, responsible for making laws. The U.S. Congress has two bodies, the House of Representatives and the Senate.

small, designated part of a larger group.

harmful condition of a body part or organ.

at some point in the future.

rare and severe events in the Earth's atmosphere, such as heat waves or powerful cyclones.

area used for agriculture.

able to produce crops or sustain agriculture.

migration of people from one place to another, as ordered by the government or international authority.

profitable or money-making.

person whose ancestors were native inhabitants of North or South America. Native American usually does not include Eskimo or Hawaiian people.

community made of one or several family groups sharing a common culture.

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Westward Expansion

A significant push toward the west coast of North America began in the 1810s. It was intensified by the belief in manifest destiny, federally issued Indian removal acts, and economic promise. Pioneers traveled to Oregon and California using a network of trails leading west. In 1893 historian Frederick Jackson Turner declared the frontier closed, citing the 1890 census as evidence, and with that, the period of westward expansion ended. Explore these resources to learn more about what happened between 1810 and 1893, as immigrants, American Indians, United States citizens, and freed slaves moved west.

Native American Removal from the Southeast

Map of Indian forced migration routes

Native Americans and Freedom of Religion

Despite the First Amendment, the United States' federal policy toward Native Americans and native religions has been inconsistent.

The United States Government’s Relationship with Native Americans

A brief overview of relations between Native Americans and the United States Government.

Seotud ressursid

Westward Expansion

A significant push toward the west coast of North America began in the 1810s. It was intensified by the belief in manifest destiny, federally issued Indian removal acts, and economic promise. Pioneers traveled to Oregon and California using a network of trails leading west. In 1893 historian Frederick Jackson Turner declared the frontier closed, citing the 1890 census as evidence, and with that, the period of westward expansion ended. Explore these resources to learn more about what happened between 1810 and 1893, as immigrants, American Indians, United States citizens, and freed slaves moved west.

Native American Removal from the Southeast

Map of Indian forced migration routes

Native Americans and Freedom of Religion

Despite the First Amendment, the United States' federal policy toward Native Americans and native religions has been inconsistent.

The United States Government’s Relationship with Native Americans

A brief overview of relations between Native Americans and the United States Government.


Trail of Tears: Forced Native American Relocation - HISTORY

America is no stranger to atrocities and bloodshed, and its slaughter of the Native Americans has at least been admitted, although it took a long time for the “Indians” not to be seen as evil barbarians who would come in the night and scalp you. The Trail of Tears was one of the worst events in the war against Native Americans, and a little known fact is that an American president was one of its prominent leaders.

On this day January 27 th , in 1825, U.S. Congress approved the Indian Territory. After Congressional approval, President Andrew Jackson, who notoriously despised Indians (Native Americans), signed the Indian Removal Act in 1830.

This act directly led to the often forced removal of tens of thousands of Native Americans from their homes. The saddest part of this is that often times the people enforcing the removal were volunteers. This is what the Trail of Tears became – volunteers forcing out thousands of people, and thousands either died or were murdered. The Seminoles put up a fight in the Second Seminole War, but to no avail.


When Native Americans Were Forcibly Removed From a Mendocino Indian Reservation

In the course of our team's research for the "California Coastal Trail" episode that focuses on MacKerricher State Park in Mendocino County, we learned that the land that is now the park was once part of the Mendocino Indian Reservation, a swath of land ten miles long and three and a half miles wide. The Native Americans who lived on that reservation, which was established in 1856, included people of the Pomo, Salan Pomo, Southern Pomo, Yuki, Wappo and Whilkut tribes.

In an 1857 letter from newly-arrived Lieutenant H.B. Gibson to what is today Fort Bragg, published in "The Noyo" by Beth Stebbins, Gibson recounted the dire conditions at the Mendocino Indian Reservation. Gibson described the near-starvation of the Native Americans, the poor quality of the little food they were given — including flour adulterated with sawdust, the suspected misappropriation of supplies and other resources by reservation administration and the need for a competent doctor. It was a potential powder keg of discontent that could explode at any moment, if conditions didn’t improve.

And yet, according to Dr. David G. Lewis, author or "The War of Extermination and Traditional Food Gathering by Tribes in California, 1856," the reservations “offered the only safety for the tribes. They knew that if they left, they would be subject to being murdered by gun-toting Americans bent on their destruction. The killing of Indians was reinforced by state laws that allowed repayment for costs of killing Indians by the state, the proof of such activity being to turn in the scalps of the redskins (hence the origin of the word). The policy was reinforced by forceful pro-extermination statements in regional newspapers and by the first American Governor of the state Peter H. Burnett. ”

In his January 6, 1851 State of the State Address, Burnett declared:

Around 1862, a mill worker named Duncan MacKerricher (1836-1926) got a job assisting Indian Agent E.J. Whipple on the Mendocino Indian Reservation. Two years later, in 1864, the Native Americans who lived there were forcibly removed to the Round Valley Reservation, which was at that time called Nome Cult Farm.

According to an 1866 letter from the California Office of Indian Affairs, the Mendocino Indian Reservation was officially “discontinued” on March 31, 1865, “the employés discharged, and the government property removed to Round Valley.” The letter further stated: “It is thought advisable that the Indians should remain at their present location for the time being they desire to remain until the lands of the reservation shall have been sold by the government. At this locality they obtain large quantities of fish and clams, and many of them find employment at the lumber mills in the vicinity at fair wages, with which they obtain clothing their presence is not obnoxious to the few settlers adjoining the reservation, nor is their labor required on the reservation at Round valley at present as soon, however, as the interests of the service require it, they will be removed.”

Although this 1866 letter indicates that at this time some Native Americans were still living on what was once the Mendocino Indian Reservation, clearly they too were on borrowed time.

As for those Native Americans who had already been forced off the former reservation in 1864, their removal had been executed to make way for the sale and resettlement of that land. And although an 1868 Resolution of the Legislature of California codified that intention “to make the lands subject to settlement and pre-emption,” a full three years after the official “discontinuation” of the reservation, it appears that the sale and resettlement of lands in the former Mendocino Indian Reservation had already been taking place in the intervening years.

According to the "History of American Indians: Exploring Diverse Roots," the removal of Native Americans from the defunct Mendocino Indian Reservation was but one of a series of forced marches in which Native Americans were driven off temporary reservation lands and forced to live on another reservation, Nome Cult Farm, in Round Valley. These forced marches began in 1855 and continued to take place into the mid-1860s.

Perhaps the most infamous of these forced marches, known as the Nome Cult Trail or the Conkow Trail of Tears, began on August 28, 1863. On that day, the Conkow Maidu people were rounded up by armed soldiers and began a grueling march from Chico to Round Valley. Of the 461 Native Americans who began the journey, only 277 remained by the time they reached Round Valley. 150 who were too exhausted, sick or malnourished to continue the journey had been left behind five days into the journey with only enough food to last them for a month. Others died of sickness, exhaustion, starvation, or thirst, while two managed to escape en route. Dorothy Hill writes in "The Indians of Chico Rancheria:" "Indian versions of the cruel hardships that their ancestors encountered on the drive to Round Valley are more explicit than the government accounts.”

According to Beth Stebbins’ book, "The Noyo:" “The problems that had beset the coastal reservation were carried over to the Round Valley reservation.” A number of first-person accounts of conditions on the Nome Cult reservation describe hard-working Native Americans who labored on the farm and yet had not the means to obtain clothing, nor had they received clothing allotments in two years. There were no schools for the children, a dire scarcity of supplies, and “no substantial buildings erected for the Indians to live in,” according to Condition of the Indian Tribes: Report of the Joint Special Committee.

Life on Nome Cult Farm was difficult in other respects as well. Not only did the original inhabitants of Round Valley, the Yuki, now have to confine their lives to only a small portion of their own ancestral land — Nome Cult Farm — they also had to live side by side with strangers from a number of other Native American tribes. Some of the tribes were enemies of the Yuki, and none had a common language.

Duncan MacKerricher, the former assistant to the Mendocino Indian Reservation’s Indian agent, and his wife Jessie, bought an area of the former Mendocino Indian Reservation known as El Rancho de la Laguna for $1.25 an acre. There they established a successful working ranch that produced butter, grew potatoes and was known for its draught horses. “MacKerricher’s Enclosure” can be seen on an 1869 map of the former Mendocino Indian Reservation.

MacKerricher is also said to have employed many Native Americans on his ranch, as many as half the Pomo who had been living on that reservation, according to a description of a historical presentation given by MacKerricher’s great-granddaughter, Faith Graham.

The land that MacKerricher’s heirs gifted or sold to the State of California became what is now the beautiful MacKerricher State Park, which opened its first set of campsites to the public in 1952. Today, MacKerricher State Park’s attractions also include whale watching from the headland, harbor seal watching at the seal rookery, beachcombing on Glass Beach, fishing, hiking, bicycling and more.

Today, the group of tribes that were first forced to live together on Nome Cult Farm in the 1850s and 1860s are collectively known as the federally recognized Round Valley Indian Tribes, which is “a confederation of small tribes: the Yuki, Wailacki, Concow, Little Lake Pomo, Nomlacki, and Pit River.”

“From years of intermarriage, a common lifestyle, and a shared land base,” says the Round Valley Indian Tribes website, “a unified community has emerged. In 1936, the descendants of Yuki, Wailacki, Concow, Little Lake Pomo, Nomlacki, and Pit River peoples formed a new tribe on the reservation through the adoption of a Constitution and created the Covelo Indian Community, later to be called the Round Valley Indian Tribes. Our heritage is a rich combination of different cultures with a common reservation experience and history.”

Today, the Round Valley Indian Tribes own the Hidden Oaks Casino and the Golden Oaks Motel in Mendocino County. And every year, The Round Valley Indian Tribes, along with the Paskenta Band of Nomlaki Indians and the Mechoopda Tribe of Maidu Indians, honor and remember those who were forced to march to the Round Valley Reservation in 1863. The Mendocino National Forest also participates in the Nome Cult Walk, "work[ing] together as a partner with the tribes to complete a brochure to document the history of the trail, and to install interpretive signs along the entire route through the forest.”

In 2013, which was the 150 th anniversary of the Nome Cult Walk, Kenneth Wright, who at the time was President of the Round Valley Indian Tribes, pronounced, “It is important that our youngest members take part in this annual event." The theme of the Nome Cult Walk that year was, "Honor Their Memory – A Path Not Forgotten."


Trail of Tears wasn't isolated incident

A mural by artist Elizabeth Janes depicts the arrival of the Cherokee Nation in Oklahoma in the 1830s. Painted from 1938-39, the 8-by-15-foot mural is on display at the Oklahoma Historical Society in Oklahoma City. (Image courtesy Oklahoma Historical Society)

Addison Kliewer, Miranda Mahmud and Sarah Beth Guevara
Gaylord News

WASHINGTON – The Trail of Tears, the forced removal of the Cherokee Nation to Oklahoma, was one of the most inhumane policies in American history – but it wasn’t an isolated incident.

In 1831, nearly 16,000 members of the Cherokee Nation were forced under armed guard to leave their native lands in the southeastern United States to trek more than 1,000 miles to what eventually would become the state of Oklahoma.

Almost 4,000 Cherokees died along the way, never making it to the land designated by the U.S. government as Indian Territory.

Removal of the Choctaw Nation began even earlier, in 1830. Like the Cherokees, they were forced to leave their homes in the South and a way of life developed over millennia to start over in an alien environment on the prairie.

But the Cherokee and Choctaw nations are only two of the tribes with a removal story. There are 39 tribes in Oklahoma, five native to the state, that have stories to be told – each with its own trail of tears.

Long before the 1830s, the federal government believed White people could use the Native lands better than the indigenous inhabitants. This “Indian problem” motivated settlers to strip Native people of their land and resources, relentlessly pushing tribal members farther west. That pressure often resulted in violent attacks on Native Americans by settlers. If the Indians fought back, Whites considered it proof that they were savages.

Although the Constitution established sovereign Indian nations with treaty rights, the idea of removing tribes from the Southeast was gaining momentum by the time Andrew Jackson was elected president in 1828. After proposing the Indian Removal Act as one of his first pieces of legislation, he became one of the idea’s most forceful advocates.

Jackson believed that forcing Indigenous people west of the Mississippi River was essential to national security, and he had no qualms about violating existing treaties, according to Jackson biographer Jon Meacham.

“The Southern states were anxious for more land, especially to grow cotton, and the Creek, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw and Seminole tribes held rich acreage – great chunks of which would become modern-day Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi and Tennessee,” Meacham wrote.

Appeals from the tribes that the land was rightfully theirs by treaty fell on deaf ears in Washington. Jackson simply did not believe the Indians had title to the land, and he would not tolerate competing sovereignties in the United States, Meacham said.

Opponents of the act said removal was immoral and illegal, but the Senate approved the law in 1830 by a wide margin.

The act passed by only four votes in the House and set 1838 as the date for final removal. To those who demanded rights for Indians, Jackson argued that removal would guarantee the survival of the tribes.

Instead, the Indian Removal Act launched more than a century of genocide.

In 1835, the Jackson administration signed the Treaty of New Echota, supposedly with the Cherokee Nation in Georgia, setting terms for the final removal of the tribe west of the Mississippi River.

The treaty had been signed by a small group of Cherokees who historians say did not represent the majority of tribal members. But Jackson insisted they did.

“The people who signed removal treaties were not actually representative of public sentiment in their nations,” said Barbara Mann, who holds a doctorate in English language and literature and has written several books about the Indian Removal Act. “That is why such a large number of Indians refused the treaties, to the point of hiding out rather than be rounded up by the government for forced removal.”

The federal government dispatched thousands of troops to enforce the poorly negotiated treaties.

In his farewell address to the nation in 1837, Jackson extolled the removal act.

“The philanthropist will rejoice that the remnant of that ill-fated race has been at length placed beyond the reach of injury or oppression, and that the paternal care of the General Government will hereafter watch over them and protect them,” he said.

Rather than protecting the tribes, the military was brutal, and one-fourth of the Cherokees died along the Trail of Tears of disease, starvation, exhaustion and exposure.

“I fought through the Civil War and have seen men shot to pieces and slaughtered by the thousands, but the Cherokee removal was the cruelest work I ever knew,” Meacham quoted one Georgia volunteer as saying years later about the removal.

The typical American history book treats the Trail of Tears as an isolated incident, said Kevin Gover, director of the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian and former assistant secretary for Indian Affairs in the Department of the Interior.

Kevin Gover (Photo by Miranda Mahmud/Gaylord News)

𠇋ut in fact, that was the policy of the United States for the better part of 100 years, to remove Indians from their homelands and then sell the land that Indians left behind to non-Indian settlers,” said Gover, who is Pawnee and grew up in Oklahoma.

Removal was not solely the result of Andrew Jackson behaving in bad faith, Gover said – it was a national project.

“It was something the United States decided to do, and they did it,” he said. “It’s essential in the telling of the story, in order to make it palatable to Americans today, to say, ‘Well, there weren’t that many Indians, and they were, after all, savages. They weren’t really using the land, and so it was OK.’”

Mann said removal in the first place was “one big, immoral, unethical illegality.”

The wrongdoings of the federal government did not end after the removal period. The government continued for many years to strip Oklahoma tribes of their land and culture.

The Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 was intended to assimilate Native Americans into White society by stripping them of their cultural and social traditions.

The act allowed the federal government to further divide tribal land and granted citizenship only to those who were willing to accept the division.

For tribes in Oklahoma, the removal stories have not been forgotten.

“None of the tribes I know want to live in the past,” said Rep. Tom Cole, R-Okla., a member of the Chickasaw Nation. 𠇋ut the best way to make sure the mistakes of the past are not repeated is to remember them and make sure it never occurs again.”


Trail Of Tears – Forced Relocation And Removal

The Trail of Tears was the forced relocation and removal of Native American communities from the Southeast region of the United States to Indian territory located west of the Mississippi River. This included many Native American tribes including Creek, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Seminole and most famously the Cherokee tribe. Estimates from tribal and military records from this time suggest that about 100,000 Native Americans were forced from their homes during this, of the 100,000 approximately 15,000 died during their journey. The Trail of Tears is infamously known for it’s devastating impact on the Native Americans which included diseases, starvation, and extreme exhaustion due to the 1,000 mile journey, this was a extreme injustice and an abuse of basic human rights. (Pauls, 2017).

The journey that the Cherokee’s were forced to make is referred to as the “Trail of Tears” due to the devastating effects that the trip had on the Cherokee people. The “Trail of Tears” has also been considered as the beginning of the Indian extermination by the United States government even though the Native Americans were just that, Native to America, they were settled in these areas long before white settlers came to stake their claim on what is now known as the United States (Pauls, 2017). During the trip of the many that perished most of those were the elderly and children, they were most sensitive to to conditions that the Natives experienced on the Trail of Tears. At each authorized stop, those who had died were buried. Hearing this many tried to escape by hiding in areas that no one would travel to or look for them (swamps, hills), the Natives learned the hard way that by signing to be removed that they were also signing their death warrants. Even though the journey was devastating, those in charge reported nothing but peaceful progress, which clearly was not the case (Satz, 1989).

After the United States was officially created, Native Americans were seen as a separate nation within an sovereign country, and yet they were fully committed to living peacefully amongst the white settlers. The white settlers had different plans however, they were mostly interested in the rich land and resources that were occupied by the Native Americans, as a result the United States government set out to gain control of the land and relocate the Native Americans that occupied the land. The forced removal of Native American communities were a result of the Indian Removal act in 1830. The Indian Removal Act was an act signed by President Andrew Jackson that authorized the federal government to relocate any Native Americans residing in eastern territory west. In return the Native Americans were then supposed to be compensated for their land however, they were not treated justly, the government engaged in false treaties with the Native Americans as well as broken promises and not treating them with basic respect that all human beings deserve. Of the Native Americans, those who wanted to remain east of the Mississippi could become citizens and receive 640 acres of farmland. Those who wanted to keep their tribal sovereignty could trade their lands that they occupied east of the Mississippi for federal land located west. Either way the Native Americans no longer would remain on their own land (Frank 2008).

Nearly eight years later in 1838 with help from the Indian Removal Act the Cherokee community was forced to give up its land which was located east of the Mississippi River, and migrate to what is now know as Oklahoma. During the trip from east of the Mississippi River to west the migrants faced starvation, exhaustion and diseases. Due to the forced trek more than 4,000 Native Americans perished. In 1831 the Choctaw Indians were the first to be relocated, they were the model for successful relocation. In 1832 the Seminole Indians followed, as well as the Creek Indians in 1834, the Chickasaw Indians in 1837 and finally the Cherokee Indians in 1838. It is estimated that by 1837 that more than 46,000 Native Americans from eastern states had been removed from their lands, leaving over 25 million acres open for white settlement (Frank, 2008).