Sissejuhatus - ajalugu

Sissejuhatus - ajalugu


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Sõna "antebellum" tähendab ajavahemikku enne sõda. See on kindlasti sobiv pealkiri Ameerika Ühendriikide ajaloole aastatel 1820–1885. See oli tõepoolest kodusõja eelne periood. Paljud sel perioodil aset leidnud sündmused aitasid selle sõja paratamatuks muuta. Orjuse küsimus ja selle laienemine põhjustas sügav poliitiline lõhe riigis selle aja jooksul, pidevalt tülitsedes küsimuse üle, kas riik peaks olema „vaba” või „ori”. Vaated orjusele karastusid-ja jõulised orjusevastased organisatsioonid muutusid tugevaks põhjas ... Samal ajal kui orjakaitsjad muutusid lõunas üha valjemaks.

Nagu öeldud, ei tohiks seda perioodi vaadata ainult sõjasse viinud sündmuste läätse kaudu - kuna need sündmused ei toimunud vaakumis. Antebellumi perioodi alguses oli Ameerika Ühendriigid riikide rühm (peamiselt piirkondades, mis kallistasid Atlandi ookeani rannikut.) Kodusõja ajaks oli Ameerika Ühendriigid mandrivõim, kus osariigid olid mõlemal pool mandrit. Kui algas enneaegne periood, ei olnud USA tulevased piirid teada. Kui periood jõudis lõpule, seati Ameerika Ühendriikide mandri piirid. Antebellumi ajastu Ameerika ajaloos oli pideva laienemise periood lääne suunas. Riigi idaosas ei olnud põlisameeriklased enam probleemiks (pärast indiaanlaste väljasaatmisseadust, mis viis enamiku põliselanike sunniviisilise eemaldamiseni Mississippi jõest läänes asuvatele aladele, avades nende maad valgetele asunikele. )

Antebellumi periood oli kiirete tehnoloogiliste muutuste ajastu, mis muutis Ameerikat nende aastate jooksul. Esimesed suured muudatused, mille tõi kaasa vanem olemasolev tehnoloogia, võimaldasid ehitada Erie kanali. See avas Kesk-Lääne arveldamiseks ja kaubanduseks. Varsti pärast seda tuli raudteede kasutuselevõtul suuremaid edusamme. Raudteed lõid kiiresti Ameerika Ühendriikidele ühtse, üksteisest sõltuva majanduse. Raudteed muutsid radikaalselt ühest kohast teise sõitmiseks kuluvat aega. Lõpuks muutis telegrammi kasutuselevõtt Antebellumi perioodil suhtluse täielikult. Järsku tuli uudis kohe. Võimalik, et te ei saa korraga palju teavet saata, kuid kujutage ette, kui 1815. aastal oleksid New Orleansi lahingus võitlejad saanud õigeaegselt teate, et sõda oli juba lahendatud.

Lõpuks muutus Ameerika nägu kardinaalselt Antebellumi perioodil. Ameerika Ühendriikide elanike arv tõusis sel perioodil 9 miljonilt 30 miljonile. Ja kuigi Ameerika Ühendriigid jäid valdavalt maapiirkonnaks - isegi perioodi lõpus -, kasvas Ameerika linnades elavate inimeste osakaal (vaid 6% -lt elanikkonnast 19% -ni). 6 miljonit inimest.
Ka Ameerika kultuuriline koosseis muutus kiiresti - uued sisserändajad Saksamaalt, Skandinaaviast ja Iirimaalt ühinesid varajaste ameeriklastega, kes olid enamasti Inglismaalt.


Sissejuhatus iidsesse (klassikalisse) ajalukku

Kuigi "iidse" määratlust tõlgendatakse, on mõningaid kriteeriume, mida võidakse kasutada, kui arutatakse iidset ajalugu, mis erineb eelajaloost ja hilisantiigist või keskaja ajaloost.

  1. Eelajalugu: Inimese eluperiood, mis oli enne
  2. Hiline antiikaeg/keskaeg: Periood, mis saabus meie perioodi lõpus ja kestis keskaega

Holokaust: sissejuhatav ajalugu

Holokaust (nimetatakse ka Ha-Shoah heebrea keeles) viitab ajavahemikule 30. jaanuarist 1933 - kui Adolf Hitler sai Saksamaa kantsleriks - kuni 8. maini 1945, mil sõda Euroopas ametlikult lõppes. Selle aja jooksul tabasid Euroopa juute järk -järgult karmimad tagakiusamised, mille tulemusel mõrvati 6 000 000 juuti (neist 1,5 miljonit olid lapsed) ja hävitati 5000 juudi kogukonda. Need surmad moodustasid kaks kolmandikku Euroopa juutidest ja kolmandiku kogu maailma juutidest.

Surnud juudid ei olnud Teise maailmasõja ajal Euroopat laastanud lahingute ohvrid. Pigem olid nad Saksamaa ohvrid ja rsquose tahtlik ja süstemaatiline katse hävitada kogu Euroopa juudi elanikkond, plaan, mida Hitler nimetas & ldquoFinal Solution & rdquo (Endlosung).

Taust

Pärast lüüasaamist Esimeses maailmasõjas alandati Saksamaad Versailles 'lepinguga, mis vähendas sõjaeelset territooriumi, vähendas drastiliselt relvajõude, nõudis oma sõjasüüdi tunnistamist ja nõudis liitlasriikidele hüvitiste maksmist. Saksa impeeriumi hävitamisega moodustati uus parlamentaarne valitsus nimega Weimari Vabariik. Vabariiki kannatas majanduslik ebastabiilsus, mis süvenes ülemaailmse depressiooni ajal pärast New Yorgi börsikrahhi 1929. aastal. Massiivne inflatsioon, millele järgnes väga kõrge töötus, suurendas olemasolevaid klassi- ja poliitilisi erinevusi ning hakkas valitsust õõnestama.

30. jaanuaril 1933 nimetas president Paul von Hindenburg Saksamaa kantsleriks natsionaalsotsialistliku Saksa Töölispartei (natside) partei juhi Adolf Hitleri pärast seda, kui natsipartei võitis 1932. aasta valimistel märkimisväärse osa häältest. Partei kasutas Saksamaal poliitilisi rahutusi, et saada valijatele tuge. Natsid õhutasid kokkupõrkeid kommunistidega ja viisid läbi julma propagandakampaania oma poliitiliste vastaste vastu ning nihutasid nõrka Weimari valitsust ja juute, keda natsid süüdistasid Saksamaal ja rsquose haigustes.

Propaganda: & ldquo Juudid on meie õnnetus ja rdquo

Natside ja rsquo propaganda rünnaku peamine vahend oli iganädalane natside ajaleht Der St & uumlrmer (Ründaja). Iga numbri esilehe allosas, paksus kirjas, kuulutas leht: & ldquo Juudid on meie õnnetus! & Rdquo Der St & uumlrmer Samuti esitleti regulaarselt juutide karikatuure, kus neid karikatuuriti konksulise nina ja ahvitaolisena. Ajalehe mõju oli kaugeleulatuv: 1938. aastaks jagati nädalas umbes pool miljonit eksemplari.

Varsti pärast kantsleriks saamist kutsus Hitler välja uued valimised, et saada natside jaoks täielik kontroll Saksamaa parlamendi Reichstagi üle. Natsid kasutasid valitsuse aparaati teiste osapoolte terroriseerimiseks. Nad arreteerisid oma juhid ja keelasid nende poliitilised kohtumised. Siis, valimiskampaania keskel, 27. veebruaril 1933 põles Reichstagi hoone. Hollandlane nimega Marinus van der Lubbe arreteeriti kuriteo eest ja ta vandus, et on tegutsenud üksi. Kuigi paljud kahtlustasid, et selle teo eest vastutavad lõpuks natsid, suutsid natsid kommuniste süüdistada, muutes seega rohkem hääli.

Tuli andis märku Saksa demokraatia kadumisest. Järgmisel päeval tühistas valitsus kommunistide kontrollimise ettekäändel isiklikud õigused ja kaitse: ajakirjandus-, kogunemis- ja väljendusvabadus ning õigus privaatsusele tühistati. Kui 5. märtsil toimusid valimised, said natsid ligi 44 protsenti häältest ja 8 protsendi konservatiivide pakutud tulemusel said nad valitsuses enamuse.

Natsid asusid kiiresti oma võimu diktatuuri kindlustama. 23. märtsil võeti vastu lubav seadus. See sanktsioneeris Hitleri ja rsquose diktaatorlikke jõupingutusi ja võimaldas tal seaduslikult neid jätkata. Natsid koondasid oma hirmuäratava propagandamasina oma kriitikute vaigistamiseks. Samuti töötasid nad välja keeruka politsei- ja sõjaväe.

The Sturmabteilung (S.A., Storm Troopers), rohujuure tasandi organisatsioon, aitas Hitleril õõnestada Saksa demokraatiat. Gestapo (Geheime Staatspolizei, Salajane riigipolitsei), professionaalsetest politseinikest värvatud jõud, anti pärast 28. veebruari täielik vabadus kedagi vahistada Schutzstaffel (SS, kaitsesalk) töötas Hitleri ja rsquose isikliku ihukaitsjana ning kontrollis lõpuks koonduslaagreid ja Gestapot. The Sicherheitsdienst des Reichsf & uumlhrers-SS (S.D., SS -i julgeolekuteenistus) toimis natside ja rsquo luureteenistusena, avastades vaenlasi ja hoides neid järelevalve all.

Selle politsei infrastruktuuri olemasolul terroriseeriti, peksti või saadeti natside vastased ühte koonduslaagrisse, mille sakslased nende vangistamiseks rajasid. Dachau, kohe Müncheni lähedal, oli esimene selline poliitvangidele ehitatud laager. Dachau ja rsquose eesmärk muutus aja jooksul ja sellest sai lõpuks järjekordne jõhker juutide koonduslaager.

1934. aasta lõpuks oli Hitler Saksamaa kontrolli all ja tema kampaania juutide vastu täies hoos. Natsid väitsid, et juudid rikkusid puhast saksa kultuuri oma & ldquoforeign & rdquo ja & ldquomongrel & rdquo mõjuga. Nad kujutasid juute kurjade ja argpüksidena ning sakslasi töökadena, julgedena ja ausatena. Natsid väitsid, et juudid, kes olid tugevalt esindatud rahanduses, kaubanduses, ajakirjanduses, kirjanduses, teatris ja kunstis, olid nõrgestanud Saksamaa majandust ja kultuuri. Massiivne valitsuse toetatud propagandamasin lõi rassilise antisemitismi, mis erines kristlike kirikute pikast ja hämmastavast antisemiitlikust traditsioonist.

Kõrgeim rass oli & ldquoAryans ja & rdquo sakslased. Sõna aaria pärineb keeleteaduse uurimisest, mis algas XVIII sajandil ja mis mingil hetkel määras, et indogermaani (tuntud ka kui aaria) keeled olid oma struktuurilt, mitmekesisuselt ja sõnavarast paremad semiidi keeltest, millel oli arenes Lähis -Idas. See otsus tõi kaasa teatud oletused neid keeli kõnelevate rahvaste iseloomu kohta, jõuti järeldusele, et & lsquoAryan & rsquo rahvad olid samuti paremad kui & lsquoSemitic & rsquo & rdquo

Juudid on ühiskonnast isoleeritud

Seejärel ühendasid natsid oma rassiteooriad Charles Darwini evolutsiooniteooriatega, et õigustada oma kohtlemist juutides. Sakslased kui kõige tugevamad ja jõukamad olid määratud valitsema, nõrgad ja rassiliselt võltsitud juudid aga olid määratud väljasuremisele. Hitler hakkas piirama juute seadusandluse ja terroriga, millega kaasnes juutide kirjutatud raamatute põletamine, juutide ametist ja riigikoolidest eemaldamine, nende ettevõtete ja vara konfiskeerimine ning avalikelt üritustelt väljajätmine. Kõige kurikuulsamad juutidevastased õigusaktid olid Nürnbergi seadused, mis jõustusid 15. septembril 1935. Need moodustasid õigusliku aluse juutidele ja rsquo väljajätmiseks Saksa ühiskonnast ning sakslaste järk-järgult piiravale juudi poliitikale.

Paljud juudid üritasid Saksamaalt põgeneda ja tuhandetel õnnestus immigreeruda sellistesse riikidesse nagu Belgia, Tšehhoslovakkia, Inglismaa, Prantsusmaa ja Holland. Euroopast välja pääseda oli palju raskem. Juutidel tekkisid enamikus maailma ja rsquose riikides jäigad sisserändekvoodid. Isegi kui nad hankisid vajalikud dokumendid, pidid nad sageli lahkumist ootama kuid või aastaid. Paljud pered saatsid meeleheitest esmalt oma lapsed.

Juulis 1938 kohtusid 32 riigi esindajad Prantsusmaa linnas Evian arutada Saksamaal natside tekitatud põgenike- ja sisserändeprobleeme. Eviani konverentsil ei tehtud ega otsustatud midagi olulist ning Hitlerile sai selgeks, et keegi ei taha juute ja et ta ei tule vastu juudi poliitika kehtestamisel. 1941. aasta sügiseks oli Euroopa tegelikult enamiku seadusliku väljarändega suletud. Juudid olid lõksus.

9.-10. Novembril 1938 muutusid rünnakud juutide vastu vägivaldseks. Hershel Grynszpan, 17-aastane juudi poiss, kes oli perekonna küüditamisel hämmingus, lasi maha 9. novembril surnud Pariisi Saksa saatkonna kolmanda sekretäri Ernst vom Rathi, kes suri 9. novembril. Natsihuligaanid kasutasid seda mõrva ettekäändena õhutamiseks hävingu öö, mida praegu tuntakse kui Kristallnacht (klaasikildude öö). Nad rüüstasid ja hävitasid juutide kodusid ja ettevõtteid ning põletasid sünagooge. Paljusid juute peksti ja tapeti 30 000 juuti arreteeriti ja saadeti koonduslaagritesse.

Juudid on piiratud getodega

Saksamaa tungis Poolasse septembris 1939, alustades Teist maailmasõda. Varsti pärast seda, 1940. aastal alustasid natsid Poola juutidele getode rajamist. Poola elanikkonnast oli üle 10 protsendi juute, umbes kolm miljonit. Juudid küüditati sunniviisiliselt oma kodudest, et elada rahvarohketes getodes, mis on ülejäänud ühiskonnast isoleeritud.

See juudi elanikkonna koondumine aitas natsidel hiljem juute küüditada surmalaagritesse. Getodel puudus vajalik toit, vesi, ruum ja sanitaarruumid, mida nii paljud inimesed oma kitsastes piirides elasid. Paljud surid puudusesse ja nälga.

& LdquoLõplik lahendus & rdquo

Juunis 1941 ründas Saksamaa Nõukogude Liitu ja alustas lõpplahendust. & Rdquo Moodustati neli mobiilset tapmisrühma Einsatzgruppen A, B, C ja D. Igas rühmas oli mitu komandoüksust. The Einsatzgruppen kogus juute linnade kaupa, marssis nad varem kaevatud hiigelsuurte aukude juurde, riisusid need, rivistasid ja tulistasid automaatidega. Surnud ja surevad langevad süvenditesse, et neid ühishaudadesse matta. Kurikuulsas Babi Yari veresaunas Kiievi lähedal tapeti kahe päeva jooksul 30 000–35 000 juuti. Lisaks operatsioonidele Nõukogude Liidus, Einsatzgruppen korraldas massimõrva Ida -Poolas, Eestis, Leedus ja Lätis. Hinnanguliselt oli 1942. aasta lõpuks Einsatzgruppen oli tapnud üle 1,3 miljoni juudi.

20. jaanuaril 1942 kohtusid mitmed Saksamaa valitsuse tippametnikud, et ametlikult koordineerida natsisüsteemi sõjalisi ja tsiviilhaldusüksusi, et korraldada juutide massimõrvade süsteem. Sellel koosolekul, mida kutsuti Wannsee konverentsiks, tähistati [juutide] täiemahulise ja igakülgse hävitamise operatsiooni algust ning pandi alus selle korraldamisele, mis algas kohe pärast konverentsi lõppu. & Rdquo

Kui natsid mõrvasid teisi rahvus- ja etnilisi rühmitusi, näiteks hulga Nõukogude sõjavange, Poola intellektuaale ja mustlasi, siis süstemaatilise ja täieliku hävitamise eest tähistati ainult juute. Juute tõsteti esile & ldquoSpecial Treatment & rdquo (Sonderbehandlung), mis tähendas, et juudi mehed, naised ja lapsed taheti metoodiliselt mürgise gaasiga tappa. Auschwitzi surmalaagris peetud nõudlikes dokumentides märkis gaasistatud juutide surma põhjuse & ldquoSB, & rdquo kahe sõna esimesed tähed, mis moodustavad saksakeelse termini & ldquoSpecial Treatment. & Rdquo

1942. aasta kevadeks olid natsid rajanud Poolasse kuus tapmiskeskust (surmalaagrit): Chelmno (Kulmhof), Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, Maidanek ja Auschwitz. Kõik asusid raudteeliinide lähedal, et juute oleks iga päev lihtne transportida. Suur laagrite süsteem (nn Lagersystem) toetas surmalaagreid. Nende laagrite eesmärk oli erinev: mõned olid orjatöölaagrid, mõned transiitlaagrid, teised koonduslaagrid ja nende alamlaagrid ning kolmandad kurikuulsad surmalaagrid. Mõned laagrid ühendasid kõik need funktsioonid või mõned neist. Kõik laagrid olid talumatult jõhkrad.

Peaaegu igas riigis, mille natsid vallutasid, olid juudid sunnitud kandma neid juutidega märke, nad koondati getodesse või koonduslaagritesse ja transporditi seejärel järk -järgult tapmiskeskustesse. Surmalaagrid olid sisuliselt juutide tapmise tehased. Sakslased saatsid neile iga päev tuhandeid juute. Mõne tunni jooksul pärast saabumist oli juutidelt varastatud ja väärtuslikud asjad, surnuks gaasitud ja nende kehad põletatud spetsiaalselt loodud krematooriumides. Nendes surmalaagrites tapeti ligikaudu 3,5 miljonit juuti.

Paljusid terveid noori tugevaid juute ei tapetud kohe. Sakslaste ja rsquo sõjapüüdlused ning & ldquoLõplik lahendus & rdquo nõudsid palju tööjõudu, nii et sakslased reserveerisid orjatööks suured juutide kogumid. Need koondus- ja töölaagritesse vangistatud inimesed olid sunnitud töötama Saksa laskemoona ja teistes tehastes, näiteks I.G. Farben ja Krupps ning kõikjal, kus natsid vajasid töötegijaid. Neid töötati koidikust pimedani ilma piisava toidu ja peavarjuta. Tuhanded hukkusid, sakslased ja nende kaastöötajad töötasid sõna otseses mõttes surnuks.

Hitleri ja rsquos Reichi viimastel kuudel, kui Saksa armeed taandusid, hakkasid natsid koonduslaagrites veel elusolevaid vange marssima nende kontrollitud territooriumile. Sakslased sundisid nälgivaid ja haigeid juute sadu kilomeetreid kõndima. Enamik suri või tulistati teel. Surmamarssidel suri umbes veerand miljonit juuti.

Juutide vastupanu

Sakslaste ja rsquo ülekaalukad repressioonid ja paljude kaastöötajate olemasolu erinevates kohalikes elanikkondades piirasid juutide vastupanuvõimet tugevalt. Juutide vastupanu esines siiski mitmel kujul. Elu, puhtuse ja juudi usutraditsioonide järgimine kujutas endast vastupanu natside dehumaniseerivates tingimustes. Muud vastupanuvormid hõlmasid põgenemiskatseid getodest ja laagritest. Paljud, kellel õnnestus getodest pääseda, elasid metsades ja mägedes perelaagrites ning võitlesid partisanide üksustega. Kui nad olid vabad, pidid nad aga võitlema kohalike elanike ja partisanirühmitustega, kes olid sageli avalikult vaenulikud. Aastal korraldasid juudid ka relvastatud mässusid getod Vilna, Bialystok, Bedzin-Sosnowiec, Krakow ja Varssavi.

Varssavi geto ülestõus oli suurim geto mäss. Massilised küüditamised (või Aktsioone) oli peetud getos 1942. aasta juulist septembrini, tühjendades getos enamiku seal vangistatud juutidest. Kui sakslased sisenesid jaanuaris 1943 uuesti getosse, et sealt eemaldada veel mitu tuhat, ründasid neid väikesed organiseerimata juutide rühmitused. Nelja päeva pärast taganesid sakslased getost, olles küüditanud palju vähem inimesi, kui nad kavatsesid. Natsid sisenesid uuesti getosse 19. aprillil 1943, paasapüha eelõhtul, et evakueerida ülejäänud juudid ja sulgeda getos. Juudid, kasutades isetehtud pomme ja varastatud või vahetatud relvi, pidasid sakslastele vastu ja pidasid 27 päeva vastu. Nad võitlesid punkritest ja kanalisatsioonist ning hoidusid vangistamisest, kuni sakslased põletasid getohoone hoone haaval. 16. maiks oli geto varemetes ja ülestõus purustatud.

Juudid mässasid ka Sobibori, Treblinka ja Auschwitzi surmalaagrites. Kõik need vastupanuaktid olid Saksa ülemvägede ees suuresti ebaõnnestunud, kuid vaimselt väga olulised, andes juutidele lootust, et ühel päeval saavad natsid lüüa.

Vabastamine

Laagrid vabastati järk -järgult, kui liitlased liitusid Saksa armeega. Näiteks vabastasid Nõukogude väed Maidaneki (Poola Lublini lähedal) 1944. aasta juulis, Auschwitzi jaanuaris 1945 Nõukogude Liit, Bergen-Belseni (Saksamaal Hannoveri lähedal) 1945. aasta aprillis ja Dachau ameeriklased aprillis 1945.

Sõja lõpus elas 50 000–100 000 juudist ellujäänut kolmes okupatsioonitsoonis: Ameerika, Briti ja Nõukogude. Aastaga kasvas see näitaja umbes 200 000 -ni. Ameerika okupatsioonitsoonis oli üle 90 protsendi juutidest ümberasustatud isikutest. Juudi arengupartnerlused ei tahtnud ega saanud oma kodudesse naasta, mis tõi tagasi nii kohutavad mälestused ja peatas endiselt antisemiitlike naabrite ohu. Nii nad virelesid DP laagrites, kuni suudeti korraldada väljaränne Palestiinasse ja hiljem Iisraeli, Ameerika Ühendriikidesse, Lõuna -Ameerikasse ja teistesse riikidesse. Viimane DP laager suleti 1957. aastal

Allpool on toodud arvud mõrvatud juutide arvu kohta igas Saksamaa ülemvõimu alla sattunud riigis. Need on hinnangud, nagu ka kõik arvud holokausti ohvrite kohta. Siin esitatud numbrid Tšehhoslovakkia, Ungari ja Rumeenia kohta põhinevad nende territoriaalpiiridel enne 1938. aasta Müncheni lepingut. Hinnanguline on ka holokausti ajal tapetud kuus miljonit juuti, kes selgusid Nürnbergi protsessidest. Hukkunute arv on jäänud vahemikku viis kuni seitse miljonit. Täpset arvu ei saa kunagi teada paljude inimeste tõttu, kelle mõrvu ei registreeritud ja kelle surnukehi pole siiani leitud.


Sissejuhatus - ajalugu

"Kasaarrahvas oli keskajal ebatavaline nähtus. Ümbritsetuna metsikutest ja rändhõimudest olid neil kõik arenenud riikide eelised: struktureeritud valitsus, suur ja jõukas kauplemine ning alaline armee. Sel ajal, kui valitses suur fanatism ja sügav teadmatus vaidlustas nende domineerimise Lääne -Euroopa üle, Kasaari osariik oli kuulus oma õigluse ja sallivuse poolest. Oma usu pärast taga kiusatud inimesed tungisid Khazariasse kõikjalt. Särava tähena säras see Euroopa süngel silmapiiril ja tuhmus lahkumata mingeid jälgi olemasolust. "
- Vasilii V. Grigorjev oma essees "O dvoystvennosti verkhovnoy vlasti u khazarov" (1835), kordustrükk oma 1876. aasta koostamisraamatus Rossija ja Azija lk 66

"Kuigi juudid olid kõikjal allutatud inimesed ja ka suuremas osas maailmast kiusati neid taga kiusama, oli Khazaria keskaegses maailmas ainus koht, kus juudid olid tegelikult oma isandad. Maailma rõhutud juutidele olid kasaarid uhkuse ja lootuse allikas, sest nende olemasolu näis tõestavat, et Jumal ei ole oma rahvast täielikult hüljanud. "
- Raymond Scheindlin, sisse Juudi rahva kroonikad (1996)

Khazaria ajalugu esitab meile põneva näite sellest, kuidas juudi elu õitses keskajal. Ajal, mil juute taga kiusati kristliku Euroopa kaudu, oli Khazaria kuningriik lootustuli. Juudid suutsid Kasasarias õitseda, kuna sallid olid kasaaride valitsejad, kes kutsusid Bütsantsi ja Pärsia juudi põgenikke oma riiki elama. Nende pagulaste mõju tõttu leidsid kasaarid, et juudi religioon on ahvatlev ja võtsid omaks suurel hulgal judaismi.

Enamik kättesaadavat teavet kasaaride kohta pärineb araabia, heebrea, armeenia, bütsantsi ja slaavi allikatest, millest enamik on usaldusväärsed. Khasarite kohta on ka palju arheoloogilisi tõendeid, mis valgustavad Khazaari majanduse paljusid aspekte (kunst ja käsitöö, kaubandus, põllumajandus, kalapüük jne) ning matmistavasid.

Päritolu. Kasarid olid türgi rahvas, kes oli pärit Kesk -Aasiast. Varased türgi hõimud olid üsna mitmekesised, kuigi arvatakse, et enne mongolite vallutamist olid nende seas ülekaalus punakad juuksed. Alguses uskusid kasaarid Tengri šamanismi, rääkisid türgi keelt ja olid rändavad. Hiljem võtsid kasaarid omaks judaismi, islami ja kristluse, õppisid heebrea ja slaavi keelt ning asusid elama Põhja -Kaukaasia ja Ukraina linnadesse. Kasaaridel oli suur etnilise iseseisvuse ajalugu, mis ulatus umbes 800 aastat 5. – 13.

Varasem kasaaride ajalugu Lõuna -Venemaal, enne 6. sajandi keskpaika, on varjatud teadmatuses. Umbes 550–630 kuulusid kasarid Lääne -Türgi keisririigi koosseisu, mida valitsesid taevasinised türklased (K & oumlk -türklased). Kui Lääne -Türgi impeerium lagunes 7. sajandi keskel kodusõdade tagajärjel, kinnitasid kasaarid edukalt oma iseseisvust. Ometi varustas K & oumlk -kaganaat, mille all nad elasid, kasaaridele oma valitsemissüsteemi. Näiteks järgisid kasaarid kuningate järgnevuse osas samu juhiseid nagu türklased K & oumlk.

Poliitiline võim. Sõltumatu Khazaria riik hõlmas maksimaalselt Lõuna -Venemaa, Põhja -Kaukaasia, Ida -Ukraina, Krimmi, Lääne -Kasahstani ja Loode -Usbekistani geograafilisi piirkondi. Teised türgi rühmitused, nagu sabirid ja bulgaarid, kuulusid 7. sajandi jooksul Khazari jurisdiktsiooni alla. Kasaarid sundisid osa bulgaare (eesotsas Asparukhiga) kolima tänapäeva Bulgaariasse, teised aga põgenesid Volga jõe ülempiirkonda, kus asutati iseseisev Volga Bulgharia riik. Kasaaridel oli 9. sajandil suurim võim teiste hõimude üle, nad kontrollisid idaslaavlasi, madjaare, pechenegi, burtasid, Põhja -Kaukaasia hunte ja teisi hõime ning nõudsid neilt austusmaksu. Tänu nende jurisdiktsioonile selles piirkonnas nimetati Kaspia merd "Khazari mereks" ja isegi tänapäeval tähistavad Kaseri merd selle mõistega aseri, türgi, pärsia ja araabia keeled (türgi keeles "Hazar Denizi" araabia keeles, " Bahr-ul-Khazar "pärsia keeles," Daryaye Khazar ").

Lisaks oma rollile kaasaegse Balkani riigi Bulgaaria loomise kaudsel elluviimisel mängisid kasaarid Euroopa asjades veelgi olulisemat rolli. Tegutsedes puhverriigina islamimaailma ja kristliku maailma vahel, takistas Khazaria islami olulist levikut Kaukaasia mägedest põhja poole. See viidi läbi sõdade seeria kaudu, mida tunti Araabia-Khazari sõjadena, mis toimusid 7. sajandi lõpus ja 8. sajandi alguses. Sõjad rajasid Kaukaasia ja Derbenti linna piiriks kasaaride ja araablaste vahel.

Linnad. Esimene Khazari pealinn oli Balanjar, mis on samastatud arheoloogilise leiukohaga Verkhneye Chir-Yurt. 720ndatel viisid kasaarid oma pealinna Samandarisse, Põhja -Kaukaasia rannikulinna, mis oli tuntud oma kaunite aedade ja viinamarjaistanduste poolest. 750. aastal koliti pealinn Volga jõe serval asuvasse Itili (Atili) linna. Tegelikult tähistas nimi "Itil" ka keskajal Volga jõge. Itil jääks Khazari pealinnaks veel vähemalt 200 aastaks. Itil, Khazari kuningriigi halduskeskus, asus suure kaubanduskeskuse Khazaran kõrval. 10. sajandi alguses koosnes Khazaran-Itili elanikkond peamiselt moslemitest ja juutidest, kuid ka seal elasid mõned kristlased. Pealinnas oli palju mošeesid. Kuningapalee asus lähedal asuval saarel, mida ümbritses telliskivimüür. Kasaarid jäid talveperioodil oma pealinna, kuid nad elasid kevadel ja suvel oma põllukultuuride kasvatamiseks ümberkaudsetes steppides.

Kaasaegse Ukraina suure pealinna Kiievi asutasid kasaarid või ungarlased. Kiiev on türgi kohanimi (K & uumli = jõekallas + ev = asula). Kiievis elas juudi kasaaride kogukond. Teised kasaaride linnad, millest paljudel olid ka olulised juudi kogukonnad, olid Kerch (Bospor), Feodosia, Tamatarkha (Tmutorokan), Chufut-Kale, Sudak ja Sarkel. Kohalik Samandari kuberner oli juut ja võib arvata, et paljud nende teiste paikade kubernerid olid samuti juudid. Suur tellistest linnus ehitati 834. aastal Sarkelisse, Doni jõe äärde. See oli ühistu Bütsantsi-Khazari ettevõtmine ja ehituse ajal töötas peainsenerina kreeklane Petronas Kamateros.

Tsivilisatsioon ja kaubandus. Kasaaride põhitoiduks olid riis ja kala. Odrat, nisu, meloneid, kanepit ja kurki koristati ka Khazarias. Volga jõe ümbruses oli palju viljapuuaedu ja viljakaid piirkondi, millest kasaarid vihma harvuse tõttu sõltusid. Kasarid jahtisid rebaseid, küülikuid ja kopraid, et rahuldada suurt nõudlust karusnahkade järele.

Khazaria oli oluline kaubatee, mis ühendas Aasiat ja Euroopat. Näiteks "Siiditee" oli oluline lüli Hiina, Kesk -Aasia ja Euroopa vahel. Khazari kaubateede ääres kaubeldavate asjade hulgas olid siidid, karusnahad, küünlavaha, mesi, ehted, hõbetarbed, mündid ja vürtsid. Pärsia radaniidi juudi kaupmehed läbisid Itili kaudu teel Lääne -Euroopasse, Hiinasse ja teistesse kohtadesse. Ka Iraani sogdlased kasutasid siiditee kaubandust ning nende keel ja ruunikirjad said türklaste seas populaarseks. Kasarid kauplesid Khwarizmi (Loode -Usbekistan) ja Volga Bulgharia elanikega ning ka sadamalinnadega Aserbaidžaanis ja Pärsias.

Kasarite kahekordne monarhia oli türgi süsteem, mille kohaselt kagan oli kõrgeim kuningas ja bek tsiviilväejuht. Kaganid olid osa türgi Asena valitsevast perekonnast, kes oli varakeskajal pakkunud kagaane teistele Kesk -Aasia rahvastele. Kasaarikaganitel olid suhted Bütsantsi valitsejate, abhaaside, ungarlaste ja armeenlastega. Mõnevõrra mõjutasid Khazari kuningad kasaaride religiooni, kuid nad sallisid neid, kellel oli teistsugune religioon kui neil, nii et isegi kui need kuningad võtsid omaks judaismi, lasid nad ikkagi Kreeka kristlastel, paganlikel slaavlastel ja moslemitest iraanlastel oma paigas elada. domeenid. Pealinnas asutasid kasaarid ülemkohtu, mis koosnes 7 liikmest ja selles kohtukoosseisus olid esindatud kõik religioonid (ühe kaasaegse araabia kroonika järgi hinnati kasaare Toora järgi, teisi hõime aga vastavalt muud seadused).

Krimmi poolsaarel eksisteerisid iidsed juutide kogukonnad, mida tõestavad paljud arheoloogilised tõendid. On märkimisväärne, et Krimm sattus kasaaride kontrolli alla. Krimmi juudi kogukondi täiendasid hiljem Pärsias Mazdaqi mässu eest põgenenud pagulasjuudid, Bütsantsi keisrite Leo III ja Romanus I Lecapenuse tagakiusamine ning mitmel muul põhjusel. Juudid tulid Khazariasse tänapäeva Usbekistanist, Armeeniast, Ungarist, Süüriast, Türgist, Iraagist ja paljudest teistest kohtadest, nagu dokumenteerisid al-Masudi, Schechter Letter, Saadiah Gaon ja muud kontod. Araabia kirjanik Dimashqi kirjutas, et need pagulasjuudid pakkusid oma usku kasaaritürklastele ja kasaarid "leidsid selle oma omast paremaks ja võtsid selle vastu". Juudi radaniidist kauplejad võisid samuti pöördumist mõjutada. Judaismi vastuvõtmine oli võib -olla ka Khazaria jaoks poliitilise iseseisvuse sümbol, hoides jõuvahekorra moslemite kalifaadi ja kristliku Bütsantsi impeeriumi vahel.

Kuningate Bulani ja Obadja juhtimisel levis kasaaride seas juudi religiooni standardne rabiinivorm. Kuningas Bulan võttis judaismi vastu umbes aastal 838, pärast väidetavat arutelu juutide, kristlaste ja moslemite esindajate vahel. Ka kasarite aadel ja paljud lihtrahvad said juutideks. Hiljem rajas kuningas Obadija Khasaariasse sünagoogid ja juudi koolid. Mishna, Talmudi ja Toora raamatud said seega paljude kasaaride jaoks oluliseks. Püha Kirill tuli Khazariasse aastal 860 Bütsantsi katses pöörata kasaare kristlusesse, kuid ta ei suutnud neid judaismist eemale pöörata. Siiski veenis ta paljusid slaavlasi kristlust vastu võtma. 10. sajandiks kirjutasid kasaarid heebrea tähti kasutades. Selle aja peamised kasaari juudi dokumendid olid kirjutatud heebrea keeles. The Ukrainian professor Omeljan Pritsak estimated that there were as many as 30,000 Jews in Khazaria by the 10th century. In 2002, the Swedish numismatist Gert Rispling discovered a Khazar Jewish coin.

In general, the Khazars may be described as a productive and tolerant people, in contact with much of the rest of the world and providing goods and services at home and abroad. Many artifacts from the Khazars, exhibiting their artistic and industrial talents, have survived to the present day.

Decline and fall. During the 10th century, the East Slavs were united under Scandinavian overlordship. A new nation, Kievan Rus, was formed by Prince Oleg. Just as the Khazars had left their mark on other peoples, so too did they influence the Rus. The Rus and the Hungarians both adopted the dual-kingship system of the Khazars. The Rus princes even borrowed the title kagan. Archaeologists recovered a variety of Khazar or Khazar-style objects (including clothing and pottery) from Viking gravesites in Chernigov, Gnezdovo, Kiev, and even Birka (Sweden). The residents of Kievan Rus patterned their legal procedures after the Khazars. In addition, some Khazar words became part of the old East Slavic language: for example, bogatyr ("brave knight") apparently derives from the Khazar word baghatur.

The Rus inherited most of the former Khazar lands in the late 10th century and early 11th century. One of the most devastating defeats came in 965, when Rus Prince Svyatoslav conquered the Khazar fortress of Sarkel. It is believed that he conquered Itil two years later, after which he campaigned in the Balkans. Despite the loss of their nation, the Khazar people did not disappear. Many of them converted to Islam and survived in the North Caucasus and Central Asian regions under new identities. Others lived and studied in other Jewish communities from Spain to the Byzantine Empire 2 but in the end had no impact on the ancestral composition of any modern Jewish population.

Märkused.
1. Many medieval writers attested to the Khazars' Turkic origins including Theophanes, al-Masudi, Rabbi Yehudah ben Barzillai, Martinus Oppaviensis, and the anonymous authors of the Georgian Chronicle and Chinese chronicle T'ang-shu. The Arabic writer al-Masudi in Kitab at-Tanbih wrote: ". the Khazars. are a tribe of the Turks." (cited in Peter Golden, Khazar Studies, pp. 57-58). T'ang-shu reads: "K'o-sa [Khazars]. belong to the stock of the Turks." (cited in Peter Golden, Khazar Studies, lk. 58). Tema oma Kronograafia, Theophanes wrote: "During his [Byzantine emperor Heraclius] stay there [in Lazica], he invited the eastern Turks, who are called Chazars, to become his allies." (cited in Theophanes, Analecta Bollandiana kd. 112, 1994, pp. 339-376).

Suggestions for further research. Here are some useful published introductory materials on the Khazars. Some are available from retail bookstores, while others are only available through libraries.

"The World of the Khazars" edited by Peter B. Golden, Haggai Ben-Shammai, and András Róna-Tas (2007)

"Khazar Studies: An Historico-Philological Inquiry into the Origins of the Khazars" by Peter B. Golden (1980)

Journal article "Khazaria and Judaism" by Peter B. Golden, in Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi, volume 3, 1983, pages 128 to 156.

"The Kuzari: In Defense of the Despised Faith" by Yehudah HaLevi, translated by N. Daniel Korobkin (1998, 2009)

"The Emergence of Rus 750-1200" by Jonathan Shepard and Simon Franklin (1996)


“Get Big Fast”

In 1994 Jeff Bezos, a former Wall Street hedge fund executive, incorporated Amazon.com, choosing the name primarily because it began with the first letter of the alphabet and because of its association with the vast South American river. On the basis of research he had conducted, Bezos concluded that books would be the most logical product initially to sell online. Amazon.com was not the first company to do so Computer Literacy, a Silicon Valley bookstore, began selling books from its inventory to its technically astute customers in 1991. However, the promise of Amazon.com was to deliver any book to any reader anywhere.

While Amazon.com famously started as a bookseller, Bezos contended from its start that the site was not merely a retailer of consumer products. He argued that Amazon.com was a technology company whose business was simplifying online transactions for consumers.

The Amazon.com business strategy was often met with skepticism. Financial journalists and analysts disparaged the company by referring to it as Amazon.bomb. Doubters claimed Amazon.com ultimately would lose in the marketplace to established bookselling chains, such as Borders and Barnes & Noble, once they had launched competing e-commerce sites. The lack of company profits until the final quarter of 2001 seemed to justify its critics.

However, Bezos dismissed naysayers as not understanding the massive growth potential of the Internet. He argued that to succeed as an online retailer, a company needed to “Get Big Fast,” a slogan he had printed on employee T-shirts. In fact, Amazon.com did grow fast, reaching 180,000 customer accounts by December 1996, after its first full year in operation, and less than a year later, in October 1997, it had 1,000,000 customer accounts. Its revenues jumped from $15.7 million in 1996 to $148 million in 1997, followed by $610 million in 1998. Amazon.com’s success propelled its founder to become Aeg magazine’s 1999 Person of the Year.

The company expanded rapidly in other areas. Its Associates program, where other Web sites could offer merchandise for sale and Amazon.com would fill the order and pay a commission, grew from one such site in 1996 to more than 350,000 by 1999. Following Bezos’s initial strategy, the company quickly began selling more than books. Music and video sales started in 1998. That same year it began international operations with the acquisition of online booksellers in the United Kingdom and Germany. By 1999 the company was also selling consumer electronics, video games, software, home-improvement items, toys and games, and much more.

To sustain that growth, Amazon.com needed more than private investors to underwrite the expansion. As a result, in May 1997, less than two years after opening its virtual doors to consumers and without ever having made a profit, Amazon.com became a public company, raising $54 million on the NASDAQ market. In addition to the cash, the company was able to use its high-flying stock to fund its aggressive growth and acquisition strategy.

Although offering more types of goods broadened its appeal, it was Amazon.com’s service that gained it customer loyalty and ultimate profitability. Its personalization tools recommended other products to buy on the basis of both a customer’s purchasing history and data from buyers of the same items. Its publishing of customer reviews of products fostered a “community of consumers” who helped each other find everything from the right book to the best blender.


An Introduction to Oral History

When we transitioned to working remotely in March, units across the Smithsonian were encouraged to think about how we can continue to ensure our mission to increase and diffuse knowledge with the doors to our museums and research centers closed. At the Archives, we turned to our work with our oral history collection. Since 1973, the Archives has worked to record a wide, diverse range of viewpoints about the events that have shaped the Smithsonian. So what exactly is oral history?

Oral history is a technique for generating and preserving original, historically interesting information— primary source material—from personal recollections through planned recorded interviews. This method of interviewing is used to preserve the voices, memories and perspectives of people in history. It’s a tool we can all use to engage with and learn from family members, friends, and the people we share space with in an interview that captures their unique history and perspective in their own words. Oral history stems from the tradition of passing information of importance to the family or tribe from one generation to the next. In the United States, the Oral History Association connects oral historians and provides a broad range of information on oral history. Some basic tenets include:

Tehnika: The methodology of oral history can be adapted to many different types of projects from family history to academic research projects in many different disciplines. The interviews should usually be conducted in a one-on-one situation, although group interviews can also be effective.

Sharing: In collaboration with a well-prepared and empathetic interviewer, the narrator may be able to share information that they do not realize they recall and to make associations and draw conclusions about their experience that they would not be able to produce without the interviewer.

Preserving: Recording preserves the interview, in sound or video and later in transcript for use by others removed in time and/or distance from the interviewee. Oral history also preserves the ENTIRE interview, in its original form, rather than the interviewer’s interpretation of what was said.

Original historically important information: The well-prepared interviewer will know what information is already in documents and will use the oral history interview to seek new information, clarification, or new interpretation of a historical event.

Personal recollections: The interviewer should ask the narrator for first-person information. These are memories that the narrator can provide on a reliable basis, e.g., events in which they participated or witnessed or decisions in which they took part. Oral history interviews can convey personality, explain motivation, and reveal inner thoughts and perceptions.

Oral history is an essential tool for us as we aim to record the history of the Smithsonian and the folks that contribute to it, but it is also an inherently democratic practice. Anyone anywhere can conduct an oral history to learn more about their friends, family, and the people they share space with. For more tools and information on conducting oral histories, check out our How To Do Oral History site. And check out what other units from across the Smithsonian are sharing over at Smithsonian Cares!


History of Greece: Introduction

The ancient Classical and Hellenistic eras of Greece are undoubtedly the most splendid, having left behind a host of ideas, concepts, and art to provide the foundation of what we call &ldquowestern civilization&rdquo. However, the two previous millennia that lead to these ancient eras, as well as the other two millennia that succeeded them are all part of the history of Greece and have left just as rich a cultural footprint on the land.

Much of the ancient Greek civilization has survived either directly or through permutations to our day. The ancient Greek dialects are influential even to this day with much Greek vocabulary embedded in the Modern Greek and English languages. Likewise, the art and architecture of ancient Greece has remained relevant and influential up to our time in the breadth of western society. The much-celebrated Renaissance was guided in large part by the re-discovery of the ancient Greek ideas through text and art, which were hitherto suppressed by the belief in the absolute authority of the supernatural power and the church.

It should be noted that History is a discipline that was conceived first in Ancient Greece. Herodotus (484 &ndash 425 BCE) is considered the Father of History, as he was the first who attempted to record events and human actions for the sole purpose of preserving them for future generations. The very first lines of his Histories read: &ldquoHerodotus of Halicarnassus here displays his inquiry, so that human achievements may not become forgotten in time, and great and marvelous deeds &ndash some displayed by Greeks, some by barbarians &ndash may not be without their glory&rdquo (Herodotus, 3). Being the first to attempt such a feat, Herodotus was not spared from harsh criticism for including in his Histories (written between 431 and 435 BCE), myths, legends, and outrageous tales.

&ldquoI have written my work, not as an essay which is to win the applause of the moment, but as a possession for all time.&rdquo (Thucydides, 16)

Not much later than Herodotus, Thucydides (460 &ndash 395 BCE) with his History of the Peloponnesian War, put his own stamp on the discipline of History by attempting to present history in an &ldquoobjective&rdquo way, and to make correlations between human actions and events. Their approach and methods of recording historical events became the guiding light for historians of the next two thousand years.

This brief history of Greece is compiled here as an introduction to web readers and to provide the historical background that&rsquos needed to appreciate all the subjects of Ancient Greek culture. It was no easy task to compress the history of Ancient Greece into a concise format that would be appropriate both for online reading and as a precise overview of the subject. Suffice to say that each sentence of this essay has been the subject of countless volumes of discourse throughout history. Further reading can be found in the bibliography. -- 6/2007


The Aim of a Strong Introduction

Along with excellent organization, your introduction lets the visitor know that what you’ve written is of interest. For what reasons would someone come to read your post? Craft an intro that shows them they’ve come to the right place. Here are a few tactics and introduction examples to help you accomplish that.

1 Answer the question “Why should I read this?”

In the intro to this article, I smacked you in the face with a statistic: If you don’t capture a reader’s attention within fifteen seconds, 55 percent will surf on to something else. Right from the first sentence, I’ve told you why this article matters, which is a powerful way to compel someone to read on.

2 Engage the visitor with an anecdote.

Hook the visitor in with an intriguing narrative that gives a hint as to what the article is about and she’s more likely to continue reading.

In the summer of 2015, Stan Transkiy was 16 years into a life sentence, and he had finally found a way to occupy his time.

3 Tell the reader “This is not for you. (But not really. It totally is.)”

When you tell someone “Whatever you do, don’t think of a purple gorilla!” the first thing they do is think of a purple gorilla. (You’re welcome! Don’t worry he’s friendly.) The same psychological tactic can work in writing an introduction.

Why do you look so angry? This article hasn’t even begun and already you disapprove. Why can’t I ever win with you? I see it in your face.

If this sounds unfamiliar, good for you. You don’t need this.

4 Share something personal.

Much like storytelling, sharing something personal in an introduction can pique a visitor’s curiosity. Either he’ll feel he can relate, or the story will be so unique that he’ll be driven to read on to discover more.

I write to fill the page, preferably with nothing.

This ambition was in me before I could write. I grew up in a family of refugees speaking Russian, a language that, as my teachers and classmates took pains to remind me, did not belong to me.

5 Ask a question.

Some may argue that this introduction-writing technique is overused, but now and then a compelling question is the hook your piece needs. It’s especially effective if the visitor has to read on to uncover the answer.

What do you get when you combine a classic psychology experiment with the search for extraterrestrial intelligence?


Introduction and Conclusion

INTRODUCTIONS
The introduction of a paper must introduce its thesis and not just its topic. Readers will lose some—if not much—of what the paper says if the introduction does not prepare them for what is coming (and tell them what to look for and how to evaluate it).

For example, an introduction that says, “The British army fought in the battle of Saratoga” gives the reader virtually no guidance about the paper’s thesis (i.e., what the paper concludes/argues about the British army at Saratoga).

History papers are not mystery novels. Historians WANT and NEED to give away the ending immediately. Their conclusions—presented in the introduction—help the reader better follow/understand their ideas and interpretations.

In other words, an introduction is a MAP that lays out “the trip the author is going to take [readers] on” and thus “lets readers connect any part of the argument with the overall structure. Readers with such a map seldom get confused or lost.”1

Introductions do four things:

attract the ATTENTION of the reader
convince the reader that he/she NEEDS TO READ what the author has to say
define the paper’s SPECIFIC TOPIC
state and explain the paper’s THESIS
Writing the introduction:
Consider writing the introduction AFTER finishing your paper. By then, you will know what your paper says. You will have thought it through and provided arguments and supporting evidence therefore, you will know what the reader needs to know—in brief form—in the introduction. (Always think of your initial introduction as “getting started” and as something that “won’t count.” It is for your eyes only discard it when you know exactly what your paper says.) A common technique is to turn your conclusion into an introduction. It usually reflects what is in the paper—topic, thesis, arguments, evidence—and can be easily adjusted to be a clear and useful introduction.

Some types of introductions:

Quotation
Historical overview (provides introduction to topic AND background so that fewer explanations are needed later in paper)
Review of literature or a controversy
Statistics or startling evidence
Anecdote or illustration
Question
From general to specific OR specific to general
Avoid:

“The purpose of this paper is . . . ” OR “This paper is about . . . . ”
First person (e.g., “I will argue that”)
Too many questions
Dictionary definitions
Pikkus:
There is no rule other than to be logical. Short papers require short introductions (e.g., a short paragraph) longer ones may require a page or more to provide all that a reader needs. Longer papers require ELABORATION of the thesis a sentence is not sufficient to prepare the reader for the many pages of arguments and evidence that follow.

JÄRELDUSED
Conclusions are the last thing that readers read they define readers’ final impression of a paper. A flat, boring conclusion means a flat, boring (or, at least, disappointing) paper.

Conclusions should be a climax, not an anti-climax. They do not just restate what has already been said they interpret, speculate, and provoke thinking.

Some types of conclusions:

Statement of subject’s significance
Call for further research
Recommendation or speculation
Comparison of part to present
Anecdote
Quotation
Questions (with or without answers)
Avoid:

“In conclusion” “finally” “thus”
Additional or new ideas that introduce a new paper
First person
Pikkus:
Again, there is no rule, although too short conclusions should definitely be avoided. Short conclusions leave the reader on the edge of a cliff with no directions on how to get down.

You are the expert – help your reader pull together and appreciate what he/she has read.

____________________________
1Howard Becker, Writing for Social Scientists (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986).

Alumni Intros

How have History & American Studies majors built careers after earning their degrees? Learn more by clicking the image above.


Dinosaurused

The prehistoric reptiles known as dinosaurs arose during the Middle to Late Triassic Period of the Mesozoic Era, some 230 million years ago. They were members of a subclass of reptiles called the archosaurs (“ruling reptiles”), a group that also includes birds and crocodiles.

Scientists first began studying dinosaurs during the 1820s, when they discovered the bones of a large land reptile they dubbed a Megalosaurus (𠇋ig lizard”) buried in the English countryside. In 1842, Sir Richard Owen, Britain’s leading paleontologist, first coined the term 𠇍inosaur.” Owen had examined bones from three different creatures–Megalosaurus, Iguanadon (“iguana tooth”) and Hylaeosaurus (“woodland lizard”). Each of them lived on land, was larger than any living reptile, walked with their legs directly beneath their bodies instead of out to the sides and had three more vertebrae in their hips than other known reptiles. Using this information, Owen determined that the three formed a special group of reptiles, which he named Dinosauria. The word comes from the ancient Greek word deinos (“terrible”) and sauros (“lizard” or “reptile”).

Did you know? Despite the fact that dinosaurs no longer walk the Earth as they did during the Mesozoic Era, unmistakable traces of these enormous reptiles can be identified in their modern-day descendants: birds.

Since then, dinosaur fossils have been found all over the world and studied by paleontologists to find out more about the many different types of these creatures that existed. Scientists have traditionally divided the dinosaur group into two orders: the 𠇋ird-hipped” Ornithischia and the “lizard-hipped” Saurischia. From there, dinosaurs have been broken down into numerous genera (e.g. Tyrannosaurus or Triceratops) and each genus into one or more species. Some dinosaurs were bipedal, which means they walked on two legs. Some walked on four legs (quadrupedal), and some were able to switch between these two walking styles. Some dinosaurs were covered with a type of body armor, and some probably had feathers, like their modern bird relatives. Some moved quickly, while others were lumbering and slow. Most dinosaurs were herbivores, or plant-eaters, but some were carnivorous and hunted or scavenged other dinosaurs in order to survive.

At the time the dinosaurs arose, all of the Earth’s continents were connected together in one land mass, now known as Pangaea, and surrounded by one enormous ocean. Pangaea began to break apart into separate continents during the Early Jurassic Period (around 200 million years ago), and dinosaurs would have seen great changes in the world in which they lived over the course of their existence. Dinosaurs mysteriously disappeared at the end of the Cretaceous Period, around 65 million years ago. Many other types of animals, as well as many species of plants, died out around the same time, and numerous competing theories exist as to what caused this mass extinction. In addition to the great volcanic or tectonic activity that was occurring around that time, scientists have also discovered that a giant asteroid hit Earth about 65.5 million years ago, landing with the force of 180 trillion tons of TNT and spreading an enormous amount of ash all over the Earth’s surface. Deprived of water and sunlight, plants and algae would have died, killing off the planet’s herbivores after a period of surviving on the carcasses of these herbivores, carnivores would have died out as well.

Despite the fact that dinosaurs no longer walk the Earth as they did during the Mesozoic Era, unmistakable traces of these enormous reptiles can be identified in their modern-day descendants: birds. Dinosaurs also live on in the study of paleontology, and new information about them is constantly being uncovered. Finally, judging from their frequent appearances in the movies and on television, dinosaurs have a firm hold in the popular imagination, one realm in which they show no danger of becoming extinct.


Settlement Houses: An Introduction

One of the most influential organizations in the history of American social welfare was the “settlement house.” The establishment and expansion of social settlements and neighborhood houses in the United States corresponded closely with the Progressive Era, the struggle for woman suffrage, the absorption of millions of new immigrants into American society and the development of professional social work.

Settlements were organized initially to be “friendly and open households,” a place where members of the privileged class could live and work as pioneers or “settlers” in poor areas of a city where social and environmental problems were great. Settlements had no set program or method of work. The idea was that university students and others would make a commitment to “reside” in the settlement house in order to “know intimately” their neighbors. The primary goal for many of the early settlement residents was to conduct sociological observation and research. For others it was the opportunity to share their education and/or Christian values as a means of helping the poor and disinherited to overcome their personal handicaps.

What actually happened was that residents of settlements learned as much or more from their neighbors than they taught them. The “settlers” found themselves designing and organizing activities to meet the needs of the residents of the neighborhoods in which they were living. While trying to help and uplift their neighbors — organizing classes, clubs, games and other educational and social activities — settlement house residents and volunteers experienced first hand the powerlessness of the poor, the pervasive abuse of immigrants, the terrible conditions in which men, women and children were required to work in factories and sweatshops, the failure of public officials to enforce laws, the dangers of unsanitary conditions and the debilitating effects of tuberculosis and other diseases. Settlement house residents soon learned that the low standards of living and unsafe working conditions that were the usual lot of poor people in the neighborhoods were most often not the result of choice but of necessity.

When neighborhood conditions and individual or social problems seemed too pressing to be ignored, settlement workers tried to meet them. Their efforts often led to confrontations with local and state officials. At other times, bringing about a change required becoming advocates for a specific cause or acting as spokespersons appealing to a wider public for understanding or support for a proposed civic matter or political measure. From their advocacy, research and sometimes eloquent descriptions of social needs afflicting their neighbors, lasting contributions were made by residents of settlement houses in the areas of education, public health, recreation, labor organizing, housing, local and state politics, woman’s rights, crime and delinquency, music and the arts. Settlements soon became renown as the fountainhead for producing highly motivated social reformers, social scientists and public administrators, including such early notables as

Background: The Early Years

The settlement house movement started in England in 1884 when Cannon Samuel A Barnett, Vicar of St. Jude’s Parrish, founded Toynbee Hall in East London. The settlement idea, as formulated by Cannon Barnett, was to have university men “settle” into a working-class neighborhood where they would not only help relieve poverty and despair through their good works but also learn something about the real world from living day-to-day with the residents of the slums. According to an early Toynbee Hall report, it was “…an association of persons, with different opinions and different tastes its unity is that of variety its methods are spiritual rather than material it aims at permeation rather than conversion and its trust is in friends rather than in organization.”

Several Americans visited Toynbee Hall and were so influenced by the English experiment they decided to organize similar “settlements” in the United States. Nende hulgas:

Stanton A. Coit who founded the first American settlement in 1886 — Neighborhood Guild — on the Lower East Side of New York City (Note: the name was later changed to University Settlement)

Christina Isobel MacColl and her friend Sarah Carson founded Christodora Settlement House in the slums of New York City’s Lower East Side

Jane Addams and her college classmate, Ellen Gates Starr, founded Hull House on the West Side of Chicago in 1889

Vida D. Scudder and Jean Fine organized College Settlement in New York City

Robert A. Woods established Andover House in Boston (the name was later changed to South End House.

The settlement idea spread rapidly in the United States. By 1897 there were seventy-four settlements, over a hundred in 1900, and by 1910 there were more than four hundred in operation. Most settlements were located in large cities (40 percent in Boston, Chicago, and New York), but many small cities and rural communities boasted at least one settlement house. In the early years settlements and neighborhood houses were financed entirely by donations and the residents usually paid for their own room and board.

The American settlement movement diverged from the English model in several ways. More women became leaders in the American movement and there was a greater interest in social research and reform. But probably the biggest difference was that American settlements were located in overcrowded slum neighborhoods filled with recent immigrants. Working with the inhabitants of these neighborhoods, settlement workers became caught up in searching for ways to ease their neighbor’s adjustment and integration into a new society. Settlement house residents often acted as advocates on behalf of immigrants and their neighborhoods and, in various areas, they organized English classes and immigrant protective associations, established “penny banks” and sponsored festivals and pageants designed to value and preserve the heritage of immigrants.

It is important to note that settlements helped create and foster many new organizations and social welfare programs, some of which continue to the present time. Settlements were action oriented and new programs and services were added as needs were discovered settlement workers tried to find, not be, the solution for social and environmental deficits affecting their neighbors. In the process, some settlements became engaged in issues such as housing reform, factory safety, labor organizing, protecting children, opening health clinics, legal aid programs, consumer protection, milk pasteurization initiatives and well-baby clinics. Others created parks and playgrounds or emphasized the arts by establishing theaters and classes for the fine arts and music education. A number of settlement leaders and residents conducted research, prepared statistical studies, wrote reports or described their personal experiences in memoirs (e.g., Hull-House Maps and Papers, Robert Woods’s City Wilderness, Jane Addams’s Twenty Years at Hull-House, and Lillian Wald’s House on Henry Street).

Early settlement house residents did not escape the prejudice nor completely overcome the ethnic stereotypes common to their generation and social class they tried consciously to teach middle-class values, often betraying a paternalistic attitude toward the poor. On the other hand, and this was typical of progressives, most settlements were segregated. Although Hull-House and other settlements helped establish separate institutions for Black neighborhoods, pioneered in studying Black urban communities, and helped organize the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Blacks were not welcome at the major settlements.

The Contributions of “Living” in a Settlement House

A distinctive feature of the early years of the settlement movement was “residency.” By design, staff and volunteers lived communally in the same house or building, sharing meals and facilities, working together and spending some or all of their leisure time together. This arrangement fostered an exciting environment in which university-educated and socially motivated men and women enjoyed the opportunity to share their knowledge, life experiences, ideas and plans for the future. Working and living together, even for short periods, the residents of a settlement house bonded around specific projects, collaborated on social issues, formed close friendships and experienced lasting impressions they carried with them for a lifetime.

How to Cite this Article (APA Format): Hansan, J.E. (2011). Settlement houses: An introduction. Social Welfare History Project. Retrieved [date accessed] from http://socialwelfare.library.vcu.edu/settlement-houses/settlement-houses/

21 Replies to &ldquoSettlement Houses: An Introduction&rdquo

Hello, You offer a great framework to understand the origins of the settlement home movement. Given that many settlement homes in the United States “originated” just prior to the Emancipation Proclamation and that “Blacks were not welcome at the major settlements“, can you direct me to research about settlement homes started by and for Black people in the late 1800s? Aitäh!

You might start by looking at the Seventeenth Street Mission in Richmond, Va. More pictures here: https://cdm17236.contentdm.oclc.org/digital/collection/p17236coll1 You might also look at the work of Rev. John Little who directed especially successful settlement houses serving African Americans in Louisville, Ky.

Aitäh! I teach graduate level social work classes and want to continue to disrupt the Jane Addams (the story told is that she started “the first” settlement home in 1870). Her story is frequently the only settlement home story told. It’s one the excludes the narratives of people of color who helped people of color.

One further thought, while this is not exactly a settlement house, you might want to look into Ora Brown Stokes. Here’s one of her projects https://images.socialwelfare.library.vcu.edu/items/show/503 and a bit of biography https://www.lva.virginia.gov/public/dvb/bio.asp?b=Stokes_Ora_Brown

Settlement Houses are needed now more than ever!!
It is so sad to see them closing their doors. Power to the people!

how did the social settlement movement help progressive reforms?

The best response to your comment is to suggest you read about specific settlement houses, e.g., Hull House, Chicago Commons, Baden St. Settlement and Baltimore Settlements. Also, read about some of the residents who lived in a settlement house and launched their careers. Edu. Jack Hansan

[…] Hansan, J.E. (2011). Settlement houses: An introduction. Retrieved October 1, 2015 from http://www.socialwelfarehistory.com/programs/settlement-houses/. […]

Hi,can anyone answer these, I have two questions related with this article:
1. Identify a group of people who lived in the settlement houses.
2. Name two groups serviced by the settlement houses.

Aitäh! greatly appreciated.

Dear Aggiebaby: It is easy to answer your question: First, before we were married, my wife and I lived as residents on the third floor University Settlement in Philadelphia. Also living in the “Unie House” at the same time were two dental externs, a heart surgeon from Bari, Italy, two other social work students and a psychology major plus two other administrative staff and the the Executive Director, his family and one daughter. Second, there are countless groups serviced by settlement house since their founding. All you need to do is read the histories of most any settlement house on the SWH web site. Good luck, Jack Hansan

Hi Mr. Hansan,
thank you for this contribution as your article carries a spirit of this movement which is sometimes hard to place in words and often gets lost in translation when transferred into historical scholarship.

I am teaching a social work practice with groups class and was wondering if you can direct me to resource with specific examples of group activities (i.e. social/fun/recreational) that I could use to, in addition to providing theory and historical overview, demonstrate and engage my class into a type of activity such as the ones you describe in your article….?

Thank you for your time, Dunja

Dear Dunja: Sorry for the delay in responding to your request. It would take more time than I have to give to fully answer your question however, I have several resources for you to consider. 1) Read the entry under SOCIAL WORK titled: “More Than Sixty Years with Social Group Work” by Katy Papell who died just recently. 2)Another entry to read is listed with the tab for Settlements. It is “The Position of United Neighborhood Houses on Issues.” 3) Google “National Association of Settlements and Neighborhood Centers.” 4) Read the entry titled “Phillip Schiff Presentation” under the tab for Settlements. 5) Google: “United Neighborhood Centers of America.” 6) If your students are required to do field work direct them to engage in organizations dealing with current social problems, e.g., homelessness, food banks, teen pregnancy, poverty, immigrants, etc.

Good luck with your practice. Jack Hansan

Thanks for a great article. I have been involved in settlement house programs for a number of years beginning in the 1960 while in undergraduate school and then later during and after my MSW at Washington Univ. in St Louis Mo. Now late in life I find my self on a settlement house board of directors who is trying to re program an organization that lost its way. Do any of you have suggestions to update my knowledge of what kind of programs are operating in contemporary settlement houses. We are in Brownsville Texas at the Texas Mexico boarder.

Any suggestions will be most appreciated.

Dear Jack White: I am pleased to reply to your comment. I started to work in a Kansas City, Mo. neighborhood center in 1950 and received my MSW in Social Group Work from the Univ. of PA in 1956. While I have been retired for many years, I have created the SWH Project and it has helped me keep up to date on the history of settlement houses. In response to your question I have several suggestions: 1) the successor of the National Federation of Settlements & Neighborhood Centers is the “United Neighborhood Centers of America.” It recently merged with the Alliance however, it would be a good place to start your search for help or resources. Another suggestion is to contact the United Neighborhood House of New York, or Northeaster PA. If you search for United Neighborhood Houses you will learn several areas of the US have such organizations.

Good luck in locating some help. Regards, Jack Hansan

Dear Mr. Hansan,
In my field of clinical social work we are so entrenched in the notion of individual pathology that it is next to impossible to find support for the idea that doing what we can to focus on the health of families and neighborhoods and the social and economic policies that effect them, is always a part of our work. And listening to the people we serve to better understand what they need! Thank you for reminding me of why I got into social work in the first place.

Thank you for the nice comment. Jack Hansan

Mr. Hansan,
I am attending school at the older than average student age of 46 for social work. I have read and enjoyed your writing on Settlement Houses. I think my plans for social work may have hung a sharp left. Tänan sind väga.

Thanks for the nice comment. If you follow through, contact the director of United Neighborhood Centers of America. He would be interested in communicating with you. Regards, Jack Hansan

John.. what year did you write the article ” The settlement House Movement”? Tänan. Raymond Sims.

Dear Raymond Sims: It is difficult to put a time frame on that article. I started working in a neighborhood house in K.C. Mo in 1950 and with the exception of two years active duty during the Korean War I continued to work in settlements until 1965. During that time I acquired a great deal of knowledge about settlements and their contribution to American social welfare. If it is important, I can tell you when the article was posted on the SWH web site. Warm regards, Jack Hansan

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