David Shackleton

David Shackleton



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

David Shackleton sündis 21. Ta sai hariduse dame-koolis, enne kui asus tööle üheksa-aastaselt, poole kohaga kudumiskuuris. Shackletonist sai täistööajaga töötaja 13-aastaselt. (1)

Shackleton liitus Accringtoni kudujate ühinguga. Aastal 1883 abiellus ta kaasveski töötaja Sarah Broadbentiga ning järgmise paari aasta jooksul sündisid neil poeg ja tütar. Nagu teisedki töölisliikumise juhid, nagu Keir Hardie, Arthur Henderson, George Lansbury ja Arthur J. Cook, oli Shackleton karskusliikumises aktiivne. (2)

Shackletonist sai aktiivne ametiühingutegelane ja temast sai Ramsbottom kudujate täiskohaga sekretär. Sarnast ametit pidas ta ka Darweni kudujatega. Vabaerakonna liige valiti ta 1894. aastal Darweni linnavolikokku.

27. veebruaril 1900 kohtusid kõigi Suurbritannia sotsialistlike rühmituste (Iseseisev Tööpartei, Sotsiaaldemokraatlik Föderatsioon ja Fabiani Selts) esindajad ametiühingute juhtidega Farringdoni tänava koguduse mälestussaalis. Pärast arutelu otsustasid 129 delegaati võtab vastu Hardie ettepaneku luua parlamendis „eraldi leiboristide rühmitus, kellel on oma piitsad ja kes lepivad kokku oma poliitikas, mis peab hõlmama valmisolekut teha koostööd iga osapoolega, kes võib praegu tegeleda otseselt seadusandluse edendamisega”. Selle huvides moodustas konverents tööesinduskomitee. (3)

Nagu Henry Pelling, autor Tööpartei päritolu (1965) on märkinud: "Tööpartei varajased komponendid moodustasid uudishimuliku segu poliitilistest idealistidest ja kõva peaga ametiühinguliikmetest: veendunud sotsidest ja lojaalsetest, kuid heidutatud Gladstonitest". Shackleton langes sellesse kategooriasse kindlasti ja teda tuli noomida, kuna ta ilmus valimistel toetama liberaalide kandidaati. (4)

1900. aasta üldvalimistel püüdis viisteist LRK kandidaati alamkojas siseneda. Rahaliste vahendite nappus tegi aga kampaania väga keeruliseks. Valituks osutusid vaid kaks, endine Šoti kaevurite föderatsiooni sekretär Keir Hardie ja raudteeteenijate ühingu peasekretär Richard Bell. (5)

Aastal 1902 tõsteti Clitheroe liberaalide saadik Ughtred Kay-Shuttleworth ametisse. LRC tegi selgeks, et nad kavatsevad esitada vahevalimistel ühe ILP juhi Philip Snowdeni. Vabaerakonna ametnikud, kes olid mures, et kolmepoolne võitlus koha pärast võib konservatiivide partei võita, pakkusid end välja astuda LRC kasuks, kui see valib välja mittesotsialistliku kandidaadi. Ramsay MacDonald arvas, et see on hea mõte, ja pärast Snowdeni veenmist maha astuma valis oma kandidaadiks David Shackletoni. (6)

John Bruce Glasier kirjutas Hardiele: "Tundub, et me ei peaks käituma nii, nagu oleksime Shackletoni valikus pettunud või oleksime valmis laskma end autsaideriteks pidada. See peab olema nii meie kui ka ametiühingute liikmete kampaania." Mõistes, et neil pole nüüd mingit võimalust vahevalimisi võita, otsustasid toorid Shackletonile mitte vastu hakata ja ta saadeti Clitheroe eest tagasi ilma vastuseisuta. (7)

Alamkojas toetas ta alati Vabaerakonda. Tema elulookirjutaja Kenneth D. Browni sõnul: "Shackleton ... uskus alati, et ametiühingud on töölisklassi huvide kõige ehtsamad ja põhjalikumad esindajad ning et neid ei tohiks tööpartei seos liigselt piirata. mõõdukus, äratas see ebasoodsaid kommentaare erakonna sotsialistidelt, kelle suhtes ta oli alati sügavalt kahtlustav. " (8) Sotsialistid ei meeldinud Shackletonile ja 1907. aastal kirjeldas Ben Tillett teda koos Richard Belliga kui "pehmelt kassidega, kes nurisesid ministrite ja nende eestkostjate vastu ... reeturid klassist, kes neid meelsasti toetab". (9)

Teised olid tänulikumad: "Shackleton saadeti vastuseisuta tagasi, vanemad erakonnad ei näidanud üles ärevust võidelda uue ja peaaegu tundmatu liikumise kandidaadiga, eriti kui ta oli valimisringkonnas nii populaarne tegelane. Shackletonist sai kohe täiskogu jõud Commonsist, tema sõbralikkusest ja vaiksest mõistlikkusest koos tema valitseva kohalolekuga, mis tõestab kasulikku fooliumi Keir Hardie romantilisemale kujule. Üle poole meetri kõrgune, tema sagedased üleskutsed poolaja süsteemi kaotamiseks oli alati tema enda tugeva kehaehituse tõttu lõbusalt alla hinnatud, näitena sellest, milline võiks olla poolajast. " (10)

1906. aasta üldvalimistel ei pidanud kolmkümmend üks LRC kandidaati, sealhulgas Shackleton, liberaalide vastasega silmitsi seisma. Suurel arvul kohtadel ei seisnud LRC liberaalide vastu, kellel oli hea võimalus konservatiivide kandidaadi vastu. Liberaalid eesotsas Henry Campbell-Bannermaniga võitsid ülekaaluka võidu, võites 377 kohta ja enamuse 84 kõigi teiste parteide ees. Konservatiivid kaotasid üle poole oma kohtadest, kaasa arvatud selle liidri Arthur Balfouri koht.

LRC sai kakskümmend üheksa kohta. Nende hulka kuulusid Shackleton, Ramsay MacDonald (Leicester) Keir Hardie (Merthyr Tydfil), Philip Snowden (Blackburn), Arthur Henderson (Barnardi loss), George Barnes (Glasgow Blackfriars), Will Thorne (West Ham), Fred Jowett (Bradford) ja James Parker (Halifax). 12. veebruaril 1906 toimunud koosolekul otsustas parlamendiliikmete rühm muutuda LRK -st Tööparteiks. Hardie valiti esimeheks ja MacDonald valiti partei sekretäriks. Vaatamata sellele, et nad andsid kahele juhile partei, olid ainult kuus parlamendisaadikut ILP toetajad. (11)

See edu oli tingitud salaliidust Vabaerakonnaga. Nendest 29 saadikust vaid 18 olid sotsialistid. Hardie valiti erakonna esimeheks ühe häälega, vastu ametiühingukandidaadile Shackletonile. Tema võit põhines pigem tema tunnustusel tööpartei moodustamisel kui sotsialismil. (12)

Osa inimesi erakonnas oli mures ametiühinguliikumise uue domineerimise pärast. Clarion ajaleht kirjutas: "Suurbritannias pole tõenäoliselt rohkem kui ühte kohta (kui see on olemas), kus me saame sotsialisti parlamenti ilma mingisuguse kokkuleppeta liberalismiga, ja sellise korralduse eest nõuab liberalism kohutavalt kõrget hinda - rohkem kui meie võib endale lubada. " (13)

Shackletoni põhirõhk oli Taff Vale kohtuotsuse ümberpööramisel. 1901. aastal kaebas Taff Vale raudteekompanii raudteeteenistujate ühingu streigi ajal tekkinud kahjude eest kohtusse. Selle juhtumi tulemusel määrati ametiühingule trahv 23 000 naela. Kuni selle ajani eeldati, et ametiühinguid ei saa oma liikmete tegevuse eest kohtusse kaevata. Selle kohtuotsusega paluti ametiühingud kohtusse kaevata iga kord, kui see oli seotud töövaidlusega. Shackletoni jõupingutuste tulemusel võttis alamkoda vastu 1906. aasta kaubandusvaidluste seaduse, mis kõrvaldas ametiühingu vastutuse streigi tagajärjel tekkinud kahju eest. (14)

Seda peeti Tööpartei suureks võiduks. Ajaloolane Ralph Miliband on väitnud: "Ainus küsimus, mille osas Tööpartei oli üheselt lubatud, oli 1901. aasta Taff Vale'i otsuse seadusandlik tagasipööramine, mis oli tõsiselt ohustanud ametiühingute streigiõigust, kuid mis oli samuti LRC jaoks ülioluline, sest just see oli ennekõike veenda rohkem ametiühinguid, et nad vajavad tõepoolest sõltumatut esindamist alamkojas, ja nõustusid seetõttu liituma LRC -ga. Kaubandusvaidluste seadus ... täitus lõpuks ametiühingute nõudeid võib õigustatult väita kui parlamentaarse tööpartei edu. " (15)

Aastal 1908 valiti Shackleton ametiühingukongressi presidendiks. Ta oli jätkuvalt tõhus parlamendiliige ning teda kiideti vastupidavuse ja häirimatuse eest. "Väidetavalt pidas ta" pidevaid läbirääkimisi valitsusega tööbörside loomise täpsete tingimuste üle ja tegi palju selle nimel, et neist ei saanud musta jala värbamiskeskusi. ”(16)

1910. aasta üldvalimistel valiti alamkojas 40 leiboristide saadikut, sealhulgas David Shackleton. Varsti pärast seda kutsus valitsuse liige Winston Churchill Shackletoni siseministeeriumi vanemnõunikuks. Järgmisel aastal sai temast riikliku ravikindlustuse volinik. 1916. aastal määrati ta vastloodud tööministeeriumi alaliseks sekretäriks. Väideti, et ta valiti selle ülesande täitmiseks seetõttu, et ta nautis nii tööandjate kui ka ametiühingutegelaste usaldust. Ta lahkus ametist 1925.

David Shackleton suri oma kodus Lytham St Annesis 1. augustil 1938.

Hoolimata hilisemast Accringtoni mehaanikainstituudis osalemisest, ei parandanud Shackleton oma piiratud hariduse osas palju. Väljaspool pereelu, millesse ta uskus, olid tema huvid valdavalt karskus, ametiühinguliiklus ja poliitika. Nagu paljude tema kaasaegsete puhul, tulenes tema mure tööjõuküsimustega peamiselt tema enda kogemusest. Töökas, lihtsameelne ja pragmaatiline sai temast teise põlvkonna puuvillaliidu juhtidest tuntuim. Viisteist kuud pärast Accringtoni Kudujate Ühinguga liitumist sai temast 1889. aastal komitee liige ja seejärel president. Ta oli lühidalt Ramsbottom kudujate täiskohaga sekretär, enne kui asus sarnasele ametikohale Darweni kudujatega. 1904 Shackleton valiti TUCi nõukogusse ja tema populaarsust mõõdeti sellega, et ebatavaliselt valiti ta järjestikustel aastatel presidendiks.

Taff Vale kohtuotsuse andis ülemkoda samal aastal ja selle täielik tähtsus ametiühingute tõhusa halvamise vahendina oli selgelt nii ametnike kui ka lihtliikmete peas. Oli ilmne, et seda "kohtunikku seadust" oli võimalik parandada ainult seadusandlusega, ja on tõsi, et ükski tegur ei aidanud nii palju kaasa poliitilise töölisliikumise varasele ülesehitamisele. Ühendatud tekstiilivabrikutöötajad, kes esindasid praktiliselt kogu Lancashire'i puuvillatöötajat, liitusid peaaegu kohe ning Sir U. Kaye Shuttleworthi ülendamisel ametisse, luues vaba koha Clitheroe osakonnas, hakkasid aktiivsed sotsialistid ja L.R.C. selle tekstiilivalimisringkonna toetajad soovisid adopteerida Philip Snowdeni, kes oli siis liikumises tõusnud oraator, ja värskelt Wakefieldi jõulisest vahevalimisvõitlusest, kus I.L.P. kandidaat, kellele ta oli andnud 1979 häält konservatiivide vastasele antud 2960 hääle vastu. Siiski otsustati keskenduda Darwen Weaversi David Shackletoni kandidatuurile. Shackleton, mehelik, geniaalne hiiglane, keskendus oma tegevuses tekstiilide ametiühinguliikumisele, millega ta oli seotud, ja kuigi laiemas töömaailmas oli see tol ajal peaaegu tundmatu, oli ta jõud, kellega oma töös arvestada oma tööstuses ja oma maakonnas. Tema üle poole meetri kõrgused tema sagedased üleskutsed poolaja süsteemi kaotamiseks olid alati tema enda tugeva kehaehitusega lõbusalt alla hinnatud, näitena sellest, milline võiks olla poolajast. Võib -olla kõige valgustavam valgustus, mida David Shackletonile kunagi heideti, oli tema enda tunnistus igapäevase lugemise kohta. Manchester Guardian kui tema kirjandus- ja üldteadmiste peamine allikas. Shackleton saadeti vastuseisuta tagasi, vanemad erakonnad ei näidanud üles ärevust võidelda uue ja peaaegu tundmatu liikumise kandidaadiga, eriti kui ta oli valimisringkonnas nii populaarne. Shackletonist sai kohe alamkojas jõud, tema sõbralik leebus ja vaikne mõistlikkus koos käskiva kohalolekuga tõestas kasulikku fooliumi Keir Hardie romantilisemale kujule.

1901. aasta alguses kaebas Taff Vale raudteefirma Raudteelaste Liidu kohtusse fantastiliste kahjude eest, kuna liidu mehed tegutsesid kaubandusvaidluses. Pärast juhtumit, mis viidi läbi liinidel, mis hämmastasid kõiki riigi leiboristlasi, tegi Lordide Koda lõpliku otsuse liidu vastu, mille summa oli "3000 kahjutasu ja mille kulud ulatusid veel 19 000 naela." ei mõistnud selle kohtuotsuse tähtsust aeglaselt! Ametiühingud kaevati kohtusse kõige absurdsematel alustel; Taff Vale'i otsust tsiteeriti pretsedendina; ja leiboristid kaotasid pärast tegevust.

(1) Kenneth D. Brown, David Shackleton: Oxfordi rahvusliku eluloo sõnaraamat (2004-2014)

(2) Martin Pugh, Räägi Suurbritannia eest: Tööpartei uus ajalugu (2010) lk 18

(3) Ralph Miliband, Parlamendi sotsialism (1972) lk 19 ja 20

(4) Henry Pelling, Tööpartei päritolu (1965), lk 225

(5) Paul Adelman, Tööpartei tõus: 1880-1945 (1972), lk 30–31

(6) Henry Pelling, Tööpartei päritolu (1965), lk 148

(7) John Bruce Glasier, kiri Keir Hardiele (13. juuli 1902)

(8) Kenneth D. Brown, David Shackleton: Oxfordi rahvusliku eluloo sõnaraamat (2004-2014)

(9) Geoffrey Elton, James Ramsay MacDonaldi elu (1939) lk 147

(10) Herbert Tracey, Tööpartei: selle ajalugu, kasv, poliitika ja juhid - I köide (1924) lk 124-125

(11) Martin Pugh, Räägi Suurbritannia eest: Tööpartei uus ajalugu (2010) lk 71

(12) Paul Adelman, Tööpartei tõus: 1880-1945 (1972) lk 39

(13) Philip Poirier, Tööpartei tulek (1958) lk 145

(14) Kenneth D. Brown, David Shackleton: Oxfordi rahvusliku eluloo sõnaraamat (2004-2014)

(15) Ralph Miliband, Parlamendi sotsialism (1972) lk 22

(16) Kenneth D. Brown, David Shackleton: Oxfordi rahvusliku eluloo sõnaraamat (2004-2014)


David Shackleton - ajalugu

Teaduskonna ajaloo projekt dokumenteerib õppejõude, kes on olnud Michigani ülikooliga seotud alates 1837. aastast. Selle jõupingutuse võti on tähistada ülikooli intellektuaalset elu. See teaduskonna ajaloo veebisait on mõeldud osaks püüdlustest dokumenteerida Michigani teaduskonna erakordseid akadeemilisi saavutusi ühe maailma suurepärase ülikooli ehitamisel ja ülalpidamisel. See pakub juurdepääsu ulatuslikule andmebaasile, mis puudutab tuhandeid Michigani ülikooli teenindanud õppejõude.
Leia rohkem.

Bentley ajalooline raamatukogu on ülikooli ametlik arhiiv.


David Shackleton - ajalugu

Kunstiteaduskond - mälestusminut
12. juuni 2008

20. mail 2008 toimunud kunstide ja teaduskonna koosolekul pandi protokollidele järgmine protokoll.

David Roy Shackleton Bailey sündis 10. detsembril 1917 Lancasteris Inglismaal. Ta õppis Lancasteri kuninglikus gümnaasiumis, kus tema isa oli koolijuht, ning alustas 1935. aastal õpinguid Cambridge'i Gonville'i ja Caiuse kolledžis, kus luges klassika Tripos I osa, saades esimese, eristades kreeka ja ladina salme. Ebatavaliselt tegi ta siis idamaiste keelte (sanskriti ja pali) I osa, saades jällegi esimese. Sõja saabudes, nagu ka teised hiilgavad klassitsistid ja keeleteadlased, võeti ta tööle luureametisse, sealhulgas Bletchley parki, Bedfordshire'i, tegeles ta peamiselt hollandi ja türgi sõnumite tõlkimisega.

Pärast sõda naasis Shackleton Bailey Cambridge'i, algul vana kolledži stipendiaadina, kus ta töötas hiljem bursarina ja seejärel Jesus College'is. Alates 1948. aastast oli ta Tiibeti ülikooli õppejõud. Väidetavalt oli tema huvi selle keele ja teema vastu osaliselt ajendatud huvist varjatud kuulujuttude vastu, mille kohaselt ta õpetas pagendatud dalai -laamat eksootilistele pasjanssivormidele. 1968. aastal siirdus ta Michigani ülikooli ladina keele õppetooli. Ta tuli Harvardi 1976. aastal. 1982. aastast kuni pensionile jäämiseni 1988. aastal oli ta paavst ladina keele ja kirjanduse professor. Ta naasis Ann Arborisse, kus ta 28. novembril 2005 suri.

1967. aastal, 50 -aastasena, abiellus Shackleton Bailey Hilary Amisiga pärast tema lahutust romaanikirjanikust Kingsley Amisist. Kui ta avas Ann Arboris kala- ja laastupoodi nimega “Lucky Jim’s”, kippus ta lauad valima või kassas töötama, hiilgav valge koka põllega. Üldiselt ei sobinud ta koduseks eluks ja liit ei kestnud. Martin Amis meenutab neid aastaid, jäädvustades vähem positiivseid aspekte: „Shack. . . oli, ma arvasin alati, oma isa diameetriline vastand: lakooniline, naeratuseta, lollikujuline pingul. Ma ütlesin endale: emal on piisavalt võlu. ” Shackleton Baileyst jääb maha tema teine ​​naine Kristine Zvirbulis, kellega ta abiellus 1994. aastal pärast pensionile jäämist Ann Arboris.

"Shack", nagu ta oli üldiselt tuntud ja kellele adresseeriti, oli imeline teadlane, ladina kirjanduse tekstikriitika ja toimetamise kõrgkuju ning suurepärane Rooma vabariiklaste ajaloo ja ühiskonna õpilane. Öelda, et tema peamine panus oli terve hulga ladinakeelsete tekstide toimetamises, hakkab kirjeldama alles tema töö kestvat tähtsust, mis hõlmab umbes 50 köidet ja rohkem kui 200 artiklit ja arvustust. Pensionipõlve viimastel aastatel koostas ta rea ​​Valerius Maximuse, Martiali, Statiuse ja teiste autorite uusi tõlkeid Loebi klassikalise raamatukogu jaoks. Tema viimased postuumsed trükised said Loebi klassikalise raamatukogu köideteks 500 ja 501, millega ta sai selle viljakamaks autoriks.

Koos A. E. Housmaniga tunnistatakse Shackleton Bailey üheks kahekümnenda sajandi suurimaks ladina tekstikriitika uurijaks. Selline asjatundlikkus tuleb ainult sügava süvenemisega kirjandus-, ajaloo- ja sotsiaalsetesse traditsioonidesse, milles ladina keel arenes. Shacki hirmuäratava intelligentsuse, täpse õppimise, hiilgava vaimukuse ja laia kultuuritundlikkuse kombinatsiooni tõenäoliselt enam ei näe. Tema enda proosastiil on selgelt tsiteeritav. Need omadused sidusid ta Housmani ja koos temaga Richard Bentleyga XVIII sajandil. Kõigil neil kolmel oli tekstilise divinatio jõud, nagu seda on nimetatud, võime väljastada või selgitada tekste, mis nende edastamise käigus on rikutud või läbipaistmatud.

Shackleton Bailey nimi on kõige tihedamalt seotud Cicero (106–43 eKr) nimega, kelle kirju (tervikuna) ja kõnesid (valikuliselt) ta koos tõlke ja kommentaaridega kümnes suures köites toimetas. Teadlased, üliõpilased ja (hilisemate Penguini ja Loebi klassikalise raamatukogu tõlgete kaudu) üldharitud lugeja olid ja jäävad talle võlgu, eriti tema töö eest Cicero kirjade kallal - meie parim tõend Rooma vabariigi hämara aastate kohta . Cicero kirjavahetus, millest väga vähe oli kunagi avalikkusele mõeldud, paljastab palju Rooma maailma tähtsaima kõneleja - ja paljuski ka mõtleja - kohta. Kuna Achilleusel oli õnn leida oma luuletaja Homerost, on Cicerol õnne, et ta leidis oma tõlgi Shackleton Bailey'st. Kirjad harjuvad kirjanduslike ja muude naljadega, millel on kaldus viited isikutele, mõnikord nimetu, kelle jaoks meil pole muid tõendeid, mis viitaksid keskse tähtsusega poliitilistele sündmustele, mis on taas teada peamiselt või ainult kõnealusest kirjast. Shackleton Bailey, kes kujutas suurepäraselt selle keeruka Rooma riigimehe, luuletaja, oraatori, filosoofi ja retoorikateoreetiku kõnepruuki, paljastas oma teadusliku kontrolli põhjalikkuse ladina keele ja hilis -vabariikliku Rooma kõigi aspektide üle ning andis seega maailmale Cicero, kes pole kunagi tähendanud, et me peaksime lugema tema kirjavahetust, kuid kes on lõpmatult keerulisem, osavõtlikum ja lõpuks inimlikum, sest me suudame seda teha.

Kuid Shack oli ka värvikas kuju, tüüp, kes tõenäoliselt ei pääse praeguse õigeusu esimesest otsimiskomisjoni intervjuust edasi. Enamiku standardite järgi ekstsentriline tegelane - tema tavaline riietus oli hall ülikond ja värvilised tossud ammu enne seda, kui viimane sai akadeemiku vormiriietuse osaks -, kuid peamiselt selle sõna tõelises ja rõõmsas tähenduses: veider, raske, sügavalt ja keerukalt kasvatatud , kellel on haruldane ja terav huumorimeel, kes nüüd lõikab, on nüüd mänguline, inimlike pettuste kriitik ja mees, kelle pühendumine loogikale, mõistusele, otsustusvõimele ja intelligentsuse ülimuslikkusele pani tema juuresolekul olevad inimesed oma mõtete ja sõnade suhtes ettevaatlikuks. Vastupidiselt levinud oletustele ja tõenditele oma kursuste hinnangute kohta oli ta tõhus ja populaarne õpetaja neile vähestele, kes olid valmis õpetama, valdkondades, kus tal oli asju õpetada. Klassiruumis, nagu ka tema üldistes suhetes, viis tema teaduslik suurus paljusid ekslikult tugeva häbelikkuse vastu vaenulikkuse, ükskõiksuse või vallandamise tõttu - hoiakuid, mis, tõsi küll, ei puudunud seal, kus ta tundis end vääriliseks. Ta oli suur kasside armastaja, tema suurim kiindumus oli esimese, valge kassi Donumi vastu, kellele ta pühendas oma Cicero kirjade väljaande esimese köite “arukam kui enamik inimesi, keda olen kohanud”, nagu ta kunagi mõneti hämmastas. märkis. Anekdoote on palju ja töö kestab.

Lugupidamisega esitatud,
Kathleen Coleman
Zeph Stewart
Richard Tarrant
Richard Thomas, esimees


Mis salapärane haigus vaevas polaaruurijat Ernest Shackletonit?

Ernest Shackleton saavutas kuulsuse 20. sajandi alguses kartmatu Antarktika seiklejana. Kuid oma esimesel reisil külmunud lõunasse olid Shackletoni kaasmaadeavastajad sunnitud ta tervisehäire tõttu ta varustuslaevaga koju saatma. Nüüd ütlevad teadlased, et nad on tuvastanud süüdlase meditsiiniliste võitluste taga, mis avastasid maadeavastajat kogu tema karjääri jooksul.

Seotud sisu

Nagu Cara Murez raporteerib HealthDay uudised, Shackleton tõenäoliselt ei kannatanud skorbuudi all ja diagnoos, mille ta sel ajal sai, ja beriberi, mis on tingitud B-1-vitamiini puudusest, mida tuntakse ka kui tiamiini. Meeskond avaldas oma tulemused ajakirjas Journal of Medical Biography.

“Ajaloolased on traditsiooniliselt vaadanud Shackletoni sümptomeid isoleeritult ja spekuleerinud nende põhjuste üle, ” ütleb juhtiv autor Paul Gerard Firth, Massachusettsi üldhaigla anestesioloog. Vaatasime teisi ekspeditsiooni uurijaid ja teiste varajaste ekspeditsioonide liikmeid ning leidsime, et mõnel olid sellised sümptomid nagu õhupuudus, neuropaatia ja pingutuste talumatus, mis olid sarnased Shackletonile ja#8217 -le. beriberi. ”

Shackleton suutis juhtida arvukalt füüsiliselt maksustavaid ekspeditsioone, hoolimata nõrkuse ja hingeldamise episoodidest.

“Ta oli ilmselgelt tohutu tegelane, paljuski füüsiliselt väga võimas, ” Ian Calder, pensionil olev anestesioloog, kes on varem Shackletoni tervise kohta kirjutanud, kirjutas Gemma Tarlachile Atlas Obscura. Mind hämmastas see, et ta tundus alati välja ajavat. ”

Shackleton juhtis päästetöid, mis tõid kogu meeskonna pärast ebaõnnestumist turvaliselt koju Vastupidavus ekspeditsioon. (Frank Hurley / Kongressi raamatukogu) Ernest Shackleton, pildil enne 1909. aastat (avalik domeen Wikimedia Commons kaudu)

Aastal 1901 liitus Shackleton kolmanda leitnandina Briti kapteni Robert Falcon Scotti missiooniga Antarktikas. Koos arstide Scotti ja Edward Wilsoniga reisis ta kelguga üle Rossi jääriiuli, kuid oli haiguse tõttu sunnitud reisilt lahkuma.

Firth ja tema kolleegid väidavad, et see tagasilöök viis tegelikult Shackletoni hilisemate saavutusteni. Kuna Briti riiklik Antarktika ekspeditsioon pidas teda pärast juhtumit ametikohale kõlbmatuks, hakkas ta oma missiooni täitmiseks raha koguma.

“Teisel teisel ekspeditsioonil Nimrod, ta suundus lõunapoolusele ja tal ei õnnestunud sinna pääseda, kuid see sai kuulsaks, ja Firth räägib Atlas Obscura. “See oli tiamiinipuudus, mis alustas teda iseseisva maadeavastaja teekonnal. Kui tal poleks olnud beriberi, poleks ta juhina oma teed valinud. ”

The Nimrod ekspeditsioon algas 1907. Shackleton ja tema rühm jõudsid 1909. aasta detsembris kõrgele polaarplatoole, väites seda Inglismaa ja Edward VII jaoks. Mehed tulid postist 97 miili raadiusesse, kuid otsustasid näljahirmust tagasi pöörduda. Pärast rasket kolmekuulist rännakut oma baasi tagasi pöördusid nad tagasi Suurbritanniasse, kus tähistati nende saavutusi ja Shackleton sai rahvuskangelaseks rüütli. Tema kuulsus kasvas alles siis, kui ta naasis Antarktikasse Vastupidavusaastal. 1914. Kuigi laev jäi jääle kinni ja hävitati, tagas Shackletoni juhtkond kogu meeskonna koju, nagu Kieran Mulvaney kirjutas. History.com eelmisel aastal.

Aastal 1922, olles asunud järjekordsele ekspeditsioonile Antarktikasse, suri Shackleton kõigest 47 -aastaselt südamerabandusse.

1922. aastal suri Shackleton 47 -aastaselt pärast neljandat missiooni Antarktikasse. (David Stanley Flickri kaudu CC BY 2.0 alusel) Ernest Shackleton (keskel) poseerib koos kaaspolaaride uurijate Roald Amundseni (vasakul) ja Robert Edwin Pearyga (paremal) 1913. aastal. (Nasjonalbiblioteket Wikimedia Commons kaudu CC BY 2.0 all)

Per Tervisepäev, Näib, et 1901. aasta ekspeditsiooni arst Wilson pidas algselt beriberit Shackletoni tõve võimaliku põhjuseks, kuid lõpuks diagnoosis tal hoopis skorbuudi. Hilisemad teadlased, sealhulgas Calder, oletasid, et tal on südamehäired. Uus uurimus väidab, et maadeavastaja südame ja hingamisega seotud probleemide algpõhjus oli tiamiini puudus.

Kasutades seda, mida me praegu toitumishaiguste kohta teame, usume, et beriberi põhjustatud kardiomüopaatia ja#8212a südamelihase haigus, mis raskendab südame vere pumpamist, on#8212 õige diagnoos Ernest Shackletoni jaoks. halvenev tervis, ” ütleb Firth avalduses.

Nagu skorbuuti, võib ka beriberit leida inimestel, kellel puudub värske toit. 20. sajandi alguses seostati seda enamasti Aasia troopikaga. (Jaapani sõjavangilaagrites kinni peetud liitlassõdurid kannatasid PBS ’ “American Experience andmetel tavaliselt beriberi all, ” kurnav haigus tuleneb oma nimest singhali fraasist, mis tähendab “I can ’t, I saab ’t. ”)

“Vitamiine avastati alles pärast esimest maailmasõda ja skorbuut, nagu seda mõisteti Edwardi ajal, oli üsna ebamääraselt määratletud, ” Edward Armston-Sheret, Londoni ülikooli Royal Holloway geograaf, uuris Shackletoni esimest ekspeditsiooni, kuid ei osalenud uues uuringus Atlas Obscura. Kui vaatate allikatest tagasi, pole sugugi haruldane, kui inimesed ütlevad, et midagi on skorbuuti, kuigi me nimetame seda nüüd beriberiks.

Livia Gershoni kohta

Livia Gershon on New Hampshire'is asuv vabakutseline ajakirjanik. Ta on kirjutanud teiste seas ajakirjadesse JSTOR Daily, Daily Beast, Boston Globe, HuffPost ja Vice.


David Shackleton, IDS: puurimistööstus ei tohiks alahinnata andmeteadusega seotud jõudluse kasvu potentsiaali

Kasvanud üles Chorley linnas Lancashire'is ja piirkonnas, mis oli sajandeid Põhja -Inglismaa tööstuslinn ja & ndash David Shackleton polnud lapsepõlves nafta- ja gaasiäriga palju otseselt kokku puutunud. Kuid ta kasvas üles väga hinnates rolli, mida fossiilkütused Lancashire'i ajaloos etendasid nii sellistes tööstusharudes nagu puuvill, suur äri selles piirkonnas selle läheduse tõttu Liverpooli sadamale kui ka inimeste elukvaliteeti, valgustades kodusid ja tänavaid ning võimaldades inimestel teha elementaarseid asju, näiteks süüa teha.

Sõltumatute andmesideteenuste Ameerika piirkonna juht David Shackleton mängis IADC täiustatud rigitehnoloogia (ART) komitees võtmerolli, kuna rühm töötas IADC igapäevase puurimisaruande kaasajastamise nimel. Märtsis 2020 esindas ta komiteed, et esitada ettekanne uue DDR Plusi kohta IADC/SPE rahvusvahelisel puurimiskonverentsil, mis toimus Galvestonis, Texases.

Tegelikult sündis Shackleton Chorley's, sest tema vanaisa kolis sinna vahetult pärast Teist maailmasõda linna ja rsquose maagaasivarustuse eest vastutama. & ldquo Gaasihoidja oli üks suurimaid vaatamisväärsusi linnas, veskite kõrval, & rdquo meenutas ta. & ldquoKui ma seda nägin, meenutaks see mulle teda ja rolli, mida ta mängis linna tagamisel gaasi tagamiseks neil päevil. Inimesed austasid teda tehtud töö eest. & Rdquo

Kuigi härra Shackleton leiaks lõpuks tee nafta- ja gaasitööstusele, ühineb Sõltumatud andmeteenused (IDS) otsustas ta 2012. aastal esialgu Durhami ülikoolis füüsikat õppida, sest soovis teada, kuidas asjad universumis toimivad. Seejärel teenis ta Cambridge'i ülikoolist kraadiõppe ja asus keskkooli õpetajaametit, nähes selles võimalust jagada oma kirge füüsika vastu järgmise põlvkonnaga.

Mõne aasta jooksul mõistsin aga & ldquo, et julgustan kõiki neid õpilasi iga päev õppima ja peaksin seda ka ise tegema. & Rdquo

Nii läks ta tagasi kooli ja teenis magistrikraadi Massachusettsi Endicotti kolledžist, õppides selliseid asju nagu tehnoloogia strateegiline kasutuselevõtt, juhtimine rahvusvahelistes organisatsioonides ja keeleline mitmekesisus.

Aastaks 2012 avastas härra Shackleton, et ta on huvitatud täiesti uuest arenevast teadusvaldkonnast ja nihutab teadust andmete ümber. Sel aastal liitus ta IDS -iga, olles lummatud tolleaegse ettevõtte ja rsquose jõupingutustest proovida ja mõista 15 miljoni tunni puurimisandmeid, mis olid salvestatud 1990ndate aastate andmebaasidesse.

& ldquoTöö tundus põnev, sest see ei hõlmanud mitte ainult matemaatikat ja statistikat, vaid ka andmeid ja kaevu puurimise ja valmimise taga olevat füüsikat, & ndquo ütles ta. Lisaks hõlmas see töö inimestega töötamist ning usalduse ja suhete arendamist. & ldquo Mõnes mõttes kandsin oma oskused lastega töötamisest üle täiskasvanutega töötamisele. Nagu õpetamise puhul, nägin, et saan midagi muuta, aidates inimestel asju parandada. & Rdquo

Kui IDS hiljem otsustas, et enamik varem kogutud 15 miljonist tunnist oli kasutamiskõlbmatu, hakkas ettevõte võtma kasutusele uusi meetmeid, mis aitavad klientidel koguda täielikumaid ja täpsemaid andmeid. See hõlmas selliste asjade lisamist nagu rippmenüüd ja fikseeritud tüüpi kommentaarid, mis takistasid kasutajatel sisestada vaba teksti, mida oleks raske koondada või sõeluda. Numbrid salvestati ka andmetabelitesse, et neid oleks lihtne analüüsida.

Seejärel hakkas ettevõte igapäevase puurimisaruande jaoks tegevuse kommentaare automatiseerima. Selle asemel, et nõuda, et töötajal kuluks selle aruande kirjutamiseks üks kuni kolm tundi, ütles Shackleton, et numbrid ja muud andmed täidetakse võimaluse korral automaatselt. &ldquoSo most of the DDR became fully automated, because we found that most of the data already exists somewhere. There&rsquos no need for a worker to write out their own version of the truth.&rdquo

By 2018, Mr Shackleton&rsquos work at IDS led him to the IADC Advanced Rig Technology (ART) Committee, which was just starting to revamp the IADC DDR system to something that could be more fully digitalized and to allow much more granularity in its reporting. He ended up playing a key role in the project over the next couple of years, eventually representing the committee to present a paper on the new DDR Plus system at the 2020 IADC/SPE International Drilling Conference.

Looking to the future of the drilling industry, Mr Shackleton urges companies not to underestimate the importance of and potential opportunities associated with data science, especially if stakeholders &ndash operators, drilling contractors and service companies &ndash can find ways for better collaboration.

With the DDR Plus, for example, being able to automatically populate the activity fields using automated rig state detection can lead to applications of blockchain technologies when it comes to contracts and payments.

Benchmarking using anonymously shared data is another possibility, he believes. &ldquoThe industry is becoming totally reliant on data, and I think being able to collaborate using the data available can really help drilling contractors to become more profitable.&rdquo DC


5. Bonhomme Richard

Bonhomme Richard battling Serapis.

Few Continental Navy ships chalked up a more distinguished combat record than Bonhomme Richard. A French donation to the Patriot cause, the aging frigate set sail in 1779 under Captain John Paul Jones and proceeded to capture 16 British vessels in a matter of weeks. On September 23, it squared off against the HMS Serapis in a ferocious battle off the northeast coast of England. Brushing off an early call to surrender with the immortal words “I have not yet begun to fight,” Jones rallied his men and successfully captured Serapis after several hours of combat. Unfortunately, his victory came too late for Bonhomme Richard, which had caught fire during the exchange and taken several shots below its waterline. After spending 36 hours trying to keep it afloat, Jones and his crew reluctantly abandoned the ship and let it sink in the choppy waters of the North Sea. Its wreckage has since become the target of expeditions by everyone from British locals to professional salvage companies, the U.S. Navy and even author and adventurer Clive Cussler. A few of the teams have found wrecks matching the Bonhomme Richard’s description, but none of them has yet been positively identified as the missing ship.

FAKTI KONTROLL: Püüame täpsust ja õiglust. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! HISTORY reviews and updates its content regularly to ensure it is complete and accurate.


NO MA'AM

We are approaching once again the grim anniversary of Marc Lepine's murder of 14 female engineering students at Montreal's École Polytechnique. Last year, here in Ottawa, women held a candlelight vigil (men were not welcome) at the city's monument to women killed by men, at which words and tears of grief and rage at men were expressed. It is a strange ritual, an annual re-opening of a wound and an almost exultant display of anger, like Jews visiting Auschwitz to rekindle their outrage (which, to their credit, I have never heard of them doing). Such passionate public rituals are deep windows into our culture, but what they reveal does not always match what the participants believe.

In 1993 I read a library book in which were transcribed all the conversations between a popular radio talk show host (I can't remember which one) and his listeners, in the few weeks after the 'Montreal Massacre'. For me, an eager student and detective of gender culture, it made fascinating reading. Many of the callers took the feminist position that Lepine's murders were representative of general male misongyny some (mainly men) disagreed strongly with that position and insisted that he was a lone madman, representative of no one but himself. It was only after I finished the book that I realized in all the hundreds of exchanges, some basic points had been overlooked and a fundamental question had never been asked. In fact, I have never heard it asked to this day. In this article I propose to ask and to answer this question.

First, something usually overlooked. Marc Lepine wasn't trying to kill women. He was trying to kill feminists. Before he opened fire, he said to the female engineering students, "You're all feminists. I hate feminists!" And in his suicide note, Lepine wrote, "Feminists have wrecked my life." In all of the vast discussion and analysis of his motives and his circumstances, isn't it curious that no one, to my knowledge, has yet taken him seriously and looked at his life to discover why he believed it had been wrecked by feminists.

The reason, of course, is that we assume we already know. Feminists, we believe, are pursuing the equal rights of women, and insecure, patriarchal men like Lepine resent having to share their male privileges with women, hence their anger and hate. But this explanation is built on an assumption and a stereotype: let's check them out. In particular, let's now ask the basic question that was never asked in all the Montreal Massacre debate: Are there ways in which feminism is genuinely damaging, even wrecking, the lives of men?

But before I continue, I need to confess to you that I hate doing this. I, like most men of my generation, was conditioned to protect women, to see them as more delicate and fragile, more pure and valuable. I learned to see them as morally superior, above the dirty, grubbing impusles of sexual and materialistic need that I knew were part of my makeup. I didn't like that, but I could live with it because I also had areas of superiority: I was stronger and more competent in the work world, more mechanical and more rational. I couldn't have articulated these things then as I have here, but at some level I knew them, and they felt right. I knew that a good man, in an emergency, would sacrifice his life to save that of a woman, as so many men have, and that also seemed right to me. And, I confess to you, I have not yet removed this brainwashing from my soul. Despite years of awareness of my conditioning and active personal work to dismantle it, there is still a part of me that wants things to be this way, that knows no way to find redemption from my personal unworthiness except in the approving, affirming eyes of a loving woman. When I think with this part of me, I know that honour comes from having the power to abuse her, but choosing not to, and instead protecting and cherishing her.

This historical, archetypal, unhealed part of me is clear that men's and women's roles are different, and that it does not fall to me, a man, to correct women on moral issues. That is their purview, their jurisdiction. But it is bigger than that. It is not just their jurisdiction, but their right, and I am unworthy to do it, lacking their purity. And so when necessity drives me, finally, to speak out and say, "But that's not true, not right," I feel, at a deep level, ashamed. I feel I have abused women, I feel I have lost my route to redemption, I feel fundamentally unworthy. Is this why men who in desperation murder women, perhaps their wife (or ex wife) and children, frequently then turn their gun, as Marc Lepine did, on themselves? I think so.

And so I wish, as I begin my analysis of Feminism, to apologise to women for my presumption in stepping onto their turf. And yet, it is necessary, for things have gone very badly wrong. And I can deal with what it brings up for me, for that old, conditioned, patriarchal part of me is no longer all, or even most, of who I am today, and for that Feminism deserves some of the credit.

All of modern feminist analysis is built on one conceptual foundation: that men as a gender have more power than women. Not just different power, but greater power. Liberal, socialist, radical, eco - all brands of feminism share this one foundation. All the theories and policies, the institutions and accomplishments of feminism (eg. legislation on date rape, sexual harrassment, employment equity, domestic violence women's shelters and crisis lines, programs for abused women and abusive men as well as the biases in family court), all are founded on and justified by this one belief. If this belief is false, then all these activities are not correcting an existing imbalance, but rather creating or worsening one. I will argue that this foundation of feminism is false, that power between men and women is balanced and has been throughout history.

My argument hinges on violence. Consider that in prehistoric society there was a need, on occasion, for either aggressive or defensive fighting. Such needs arise naturally from the competition between tribes for resources, or for any number of more complex reasons. (The modern notion that primitive societies were peaceful and harmonious is a nostalgic fantasy: most, like the Native Americans, were warlike long before they encountered Europeans.) Given the boiological differences between men and women which lead naturally to the women being engaged in child rearing and the men in hunting (and which division of labour is also common in the animal kiingdom), this task of war would tend to fall to men. And that would result in a problem. For once men, as a gender, organize themselves as a fighting force, what is to prevent them from taking over the society, enslaving women and taking what they wish from them? As, indeed, happens to this day in military coups. But why doesn't it happen everywhere, all the time?

The answer is that nature always finds a balance. The balance in this case was provided by an honour code. In elegantly simple fashion, men held the physical power and women the moral power. Each had a power over the other, and each had something the other needed. Men had the physical power but needed the moral affirmation of women in order to achieve social status, not to mention a wife and children. Women had the moral power but needed the physical protection and perhaps also the provision of food and shelter of men. Of course, at first i imagine there were many tribes where the men enslaved the women. What must have happened is that such tribes were less effective, less efficient than those where the balance of power was invented and men and women were able to work cooperatively, and so over time evolution favoured those with an honour code restraining the force of the warrior men. And we are their descendents.

This honour code has taken many forms over time, from the ritual chivalry of the middle ages to the exaggerated puritanism of the Victorians, but it has always been (usually covertly - or at least, unknown to men) focused on and controlled by women. Its deepest root is, of course, the power that women have to grant or withhold sexual favours, and so to cut off a 'dishonourable' man from the right to progeny or a normal life. (And incidentally, this is the reason why the sexual revolution of the fifties failed to deliver us to sexual equality, but instead resulted in the rise of Feminism, which restored sexual control by women under the guise of equality ‹ but that's another article.) This honour code is deeply and fundamentally alive in men today, and it is still society's greatest defense against both individual and collective male violence. And this is where the urgency of our present situation is apparent, for Feminism has, for the first time in history, turned women from shaming individual men who are judged dishonourable, to shaming men in general and masculinity as an institution. And the very real danger in this is that if men come to perceive that there is no way for them to achieve honour, to be recognized publicly and privately as 'good' men, then they may sense that they have little to lose by taking what they want, since they have little to gain by restraining themselves. I very much fear that if we do not turn aside from our still-growing, wholesale shaming of men and the Patriarchy and all things male, that our future may contain civil violence of a degree we have never seen before.

I will not attempt to prove my thesis to you in this article. That is the task of a future book, and anyway, all the evidence needed is available to those who look for it‹not least in the pages of the issues of this magazine. And, reassuringly, more and more books are now being published, written by women, which point penetratingly and powerfully to the fallacies in the Feminist position. But let us not underestimate the power that Feminism holds. The deepest, most deadly power given to women by tribal evolution is the power to shame. It had to be powerful, because it balanced the most deadly power given to men the power to kill. That power to shame the deep souls of men is the power that Feminism is using today to silence the men who would otherwise shout its errors and lies aloud. As I confessed early in this article, it is not easy for a man to grow out of his dependence on women for his essential honour. This is deep masculine stuff: "death before dishonour" is not a trivial male cry. Men have run from trenches directly into machine gun fire rather than face their terror of shame and dishonour. But our recovery as men begins with telling the truth about ourselves and naming our oppressions. I hope that I and Everyman can help lead men forward toward real emancipation.

And I ask for the help of women in this. As you cease to identify with Feminism for the power and control it seems to give you, and begin instead to welcome and affirm the men in your lives who choose to stand their own ground and describe honestly how feminist analysis does not tell the truth about their lives, so you will create the environment in which men can more easily tell their truths. And in this way you will create greater honesty in your life between men and women. That is the direction we must go, and as swiftly as we can, if we are to lessen the tensions that are still growing between men and women, and avoid the possibility of vast civil violence that could erupt if men are shamed beyond their limits, before they have the moral strength from their own resources to restrain their tendencies towards violence. This, to my mind, is the most important message that Marc Lepine has for us. Is he, perhaps, representative of a possible future, one in which men, shamed beyond endurance by a male-hating Feminist establishment, strike out in desperation at those they judge responsible? I most earnestly hope not.


At a Meeting of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences May 20, 2008, the following Minute was placed upon the records.

David Roy Shackleton Bailey was born on December 10, 1917, in Lancaster, England. He attended the Lancaster Royal Grammar School, where his father was headmaster, and in 1935 began his studies at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, where he read Part I of the Classics Tripos, getting a first, with distinctions in Greek and Latin verse. Unusually, he then did Oriental Languages (Sanskrit and Pali) Part I, again getting a first. When the war came, like other brilliant classicists and linguists, he was recruited for work in Intelligence, including a stint at Bletchley Park, Bedfordshire he was mainly engaged in translating Dutch and Turkish messages.

After the war, Shackleton Bailey returned to Cambridge, first as a fellow of his old college, where he later served as bursar, and then at Jesus College. From 1948 he was University Lecturer in Tibetan. His interest in that language and subject was said to have been in part motivated by an interest in the occult rumors circulated that he taught the exiled Dalai Lama exotic forms of solitaire. In 1968 he moved to a Chair of Latin at the University of Michigan. He came to Harvard in 1976. From 1982 until his retirement in 1988, he was Pope Professor of the Latin Language and Literature. He returned to Ann Arbor, where he died on November 28, 2005.

In 1967, aged 50, Shackleton Bailey married Hilary Amis, following her divorce from the novelist Kingsley Amis. When she opened up a fish-and-chip shop in Ann Arbor called “Lucky Jim’s,” he would tend tables or work the cash register, resplendent in a white chef’s apron. He was generally unsuited to domestic life, however, and the union did not last. Martin Amis recollecting those years, captures the less positive aspects: “Shack . . . was, I always thought, the diametrical opposite of my father: a laconic, unsmiling, dumpty-shaped tightwad. I used to say to myself: Mum’s had enough of charm.” Shackleton Bailey is survived by his second wife, Kristine Zvirbulis, whom he married in 1994, after his retirement to Ann Arbor.

“Shack,” as he was generally known and addressed, was a prodigious scholar, a towering figure in the textual criticism and editing of Latin literature, and a brilliant student of Roman Republican history and society. To say that his chief contribution was in the editing of a whole range of Latin texts only begins to describe the enduring importance of his work, which amounts to some 50 volumes and more than 200 articles and reviews. In the latter years of his retirement he produced a series of new translations of Valerius Maximus, Martial, Statius and other authors for the Loeb Classical Library, the comprehensive series of translations of Greek and Latin literature, published by Harvard University Press. His final, posthumous publications became volumes 500 and 501 of the Loeb Classical Library, thereby establishing him as its most prolific author.

Alongside A. E. Housman, Shackleton Bailey is recognized as one of the greatest scholars of Latin textual criticism in the twentieth century. Such expertise comes only through a deep immersion in the literary, historical, and social traditions in which the Latin language evolved. Shack’s combination of daunting intelligence, precise learning, brilliant wit, and broad cultural sensibility are unlikely to be seen again. His own prose style is eminently quotable. These are the qualities that tied him to Housman, and, with him, to Richard Bentley in the eighteenth century. All three of them possessed the power of textual divinatio, as it has been called, the ability to emend or explain texts which, in the course of their transmission, have become corrupted or opaque.

The name of Shackleton Bailey is most closely associated with that of Cicero (106–43 BC), whose letters (in their entirety) and speeches (selectively) he edited, with translation and commentary, in ten large volumes. Scholars, students, and (through later Penguin and Loeb Classical Library translations) the general educated reader, were, and continue to be, indebted to him, particularly for his work on Cicero’s letters—our best evidence for the twilight years of the Roman republic. Cicero’s correspondence, very little of which was ever intended for the public eye, reveals much about the most important orator—and, in many ways, thinker—of the Roman world. As Achilles was fortunate to find his poet in Homer, so Cicero is lucky to have found his interpreter in Shackleton Bailey. The letters bristle with literary and other jokes with oblique references to persons, sometimes unnamed, for whom we have no other evidence with allusions to political happenings of central importance, again known primarily or only from the letter in question. Brilliant at representing the idiom of this complex Roman statesman, poet, orator, philosopher, and theorist of rhetoric, Shackleton Bailey revealed the depth of his scholarly control of all aspects of Latin and of late Republican Rome, and so gave the world a Cicero who never meant us to read his correspondence, but who is infinitely more complex, sympathetic and, ultimately, more human for our being able to do so.

But Shack was also a colorful figure, a type unlikely to make it past the first search committee interview in the current orthodoxy. An eccentric figure by most standards—his regular attire was a grey suit and colorful sneakers long before the latter became part of the academic’s uniform—but mainly in the true and joyous sense of the word: quirky, difficult, cultured in profound and complex ways, endowed with a rare and keen sense of humor now cutting, now playful, a critic of human foibles and a man whose dedication to logic, reason, judgment, and the primacy of intelligence made those in his presence careful of their thoughts and words. Contrary to the popular assumptions and the evidence of his course evaluations, he was an effective and popular teacher to those few who were prepared to be taught, in the areas in which he had things to teach. In the classroom, as in his dealings in general, his scholarly magnitude led many to mistake an intense shyness for hostility, indifference or dismissal—attitudes that, admittedly, were not absent where he felt they were deserved. He was a great lover of cats his greatest affection was for the first, the white cat Donum, to whom he dedicated the first volume of his edition of Cicero’s letters, “more intelligent than most people I have encountered,” as he once somewhat disconcertingly remarked. Anecdotes abound, and the work endures.

Kathleen Coleman
Zeph Stewart †
Richard Tarrant
Richard Thomas, Chair


HISTORY | The Adams-class guided-missile destroyers and the Royal Australian Navy

HMAS Perth, HMAS Brisbane and HMAS Hobart alongside Stokes Hill Wharf in Darwin. Photo: DoD

From its origins in 1901 until the late 1950s, through its deep association with the Royal Navy, the Royal Australian Navy became unmistakably British in outlook, practices and culture. It was a relationship of great value to Australia. That comfortable symbiosis had reached its zenith by 1957, when Prime Minister Robert Menzies announced to parliament that Australia would be moving towards standardising Australia’s military services with those of the United States.

The outcome of that decision was that the RAN would successfully transition to be a highly valued ally of the US Navy, already the RN’s replacement as the world’s most powerful maritime force. On that journey, the RAN progressively underwent a major transformation in virtually every dimension, the catalyst for which was its operation of the Charles F. Adams–class guided-missile destroyers.

By 1957, Australia’s government had a clear-eyed view that the nation’s security was much more closely linked with America than with Britain. The Cold War had started, and the threat of communist expansion in Asia was taken seriously. Indonesia was, for a while, regarded as a threat because of its alignment with the Soviet Union.

With the impending demise of its carrier-based aircraft in the early 1960s, the RAN needed an air-defence alternative to fighter planes and decided to acquire ships fitted with surface-to-air guided missiles. The navy’s leaders wanted an extensively modified RN County class. The British beam-riding Sea Slug would be replaced with the US Navy’s semi-active homing Tartar, and the Australian-designed Ikara anti-submarine missile system would be installed. One can only guess what the technical risk, cost and schedule implications would have been.

Fortunately for Australia, that solution didn’t fit with the government’s primary objective of having elements of its navy standardised with America’s navy for the lowest possible price to demonstrate its commitment to ANZUS and SEATO. The RAN had a Hobson’s choice: take the Adams-class guided- missile destroyers or get nothing. The US sold Australia two, and then a third (after Australia asked for it), which were named HMAS Perth, Hobart ja Brisbane. It was the first time the US had sold its most modern warships to another country.

Soon after arriving in Australia, Hobart joined the US 7th Fleet on combat operations in Vietnam Perth ja Brisbane were also rotated in. The destroyers were manned by well-trained crews, with captains who were usually on at least their second command. They wore the RAN’s new white ensign and were unmistakably Australian – a distinction that mattered to both navies. That distinction and mutual respect, earned by a combination of high standards and skills, still underpins one of the great enduring naval associations of the modern era.

New methods of operational logistic support, weapons systems management, air defence, command and control and replenishment at sea were just some aspects of naval warfare brought back to the broader RAN from the destroyers’ experience in Vietnam. The RAN also adopted a much more intensive, multifaceted and independently assessed work-up regime in preparing its ships for deployment based on US Navy practices.

As the destroyers entered service in the mid-1960s, the US Navy was already introducing its digital combat system and had started work on what eventually became Aegis. The RAN was offered software at no charge for a scaled-down tactical data system, which became the RAN’s naval combat system. It was primarily an air-defence system and integrated with the digital Standard Missile system. Management of anti-submarine operations was analogue and clumsy, and electronic warfare integration was poor. All three ships later underwent further modernisation but retained the relatively short range and obsolescent SM1 missile system, making them vulnerable to emerging capabilities in Australia’s region.

Australia’s experience with the Adams destroyers led to the purchase of three, and later a fourth, Perry-class guided-missile frigates from the US. Two more were eventually built in Australia, the last of which has only recently been decommissioned. The RAN therefore operated nine ships of US origin with fundamentally the same combat system and weapons and benefited greatly from that standardisation.

Between 1976 to 2001, officers who had been a head of department in a destroyer had markedly better prospects for promotion to star rank. With two exceptions, in the 53 years from 1955 to 2008, the most senior leadership of the RAN was exercised by 17 officers who came from two distinct backgrounds.

First, for about 27 years, former commanding officers of aircraft carriers were ultimately chosen to become the chief of naval staff. Second, from 1982, for 26 years, the chiefs were former commanding officers of destroyers. Having such an influential group of senior officers ensured that there was a deepening and integration of knowledge acquired from the US Navy, enabling the RAN to unmistakably Australianise its methods and culture, born of its immeasurably valuable RN heritage.

The plan for extensive modernisation of Anzac frigates as replacements for the destroyers was cancelled because of technical risk and cost. This was matched by a drawn-out and expensive modernisation program for four of the RAN’s six Perry-class frigates. Those ships were equipped with the SM2 missile and anti-ship missile defence capabilities but lacked the command and control facilities necessary for modern task group operations. A planning failure meant that the destroyers were in service for at least a decade too long. When HMAS Brisbane was retired from the RAN in 2001, it took until 2017 for HMAS Hobart, the first of the Aegis-equipped Hobart class, to restore the RAN’s capability for advanced air defence and command and control.

For nearly 36 years, the destroyers gave naval options to Australia’s political decision-makers during cold war, limited war and peace. The Adams class empowered the RAN in developing a much greater understanding of what it means, and what had to be done, to become a distinctly Australian and self-reliant medium-power navy.

This article is a summary of David Shackleton’s accepted PhD thesis the full thesis is available for download from the RAN Sea Power Centre


Leading in Hard Times: Lessons from Shackleton

In 1914, Europe began WWI and set about devouring a generation of European men. Also that year, Ernest Shackleton, already a famed and knighted Antarctic explorer, headed an expedition to cross that continent. The ice trapped and then crushed his ship, the Endurance, forcing months of camping on the ice followed by a six day open boat trip. Next came a truly incredible three week ordeal as Shackleton and a crew of 5 others crossed 830 miles through hurricane and gale roiled seas in a modified life boat. Then, he and 2 others traversed the uncharted interior of South Georgia Island (a first) and its perilous combination of mountains and ice fields (32 miles in about 36 hours). Shackleton’s multiple attempts to rescue those left behind culminated in his arriving with a rescue ship four months after his departure. Reportedly, he could not bear to watch from the rescue launch as his boatmates counted the number of survivors visible and waving on shore. Everyone had survived.

I often explore the case with executives attending Wharton’s Aresty Institute of Executive Education because of its richness and the starkness of the colors of its lessons…and because as the novelist Thomas V. Pychon said, “You wait. Everyone has an Antarctic.” I even taught the case in Antarctica as part of an eight day/seven night Antarctic trek one hundred years after Shackleton’s expedition made it out. Research and cumulative leadership experiences support many of Shackleton’s practices and in these times, I offer a few up for you who lead when it matters most, like now.

  • Be honest and clear. Those in authority need to help one and all to understand reality, as best as we can possibly understand it. Truth and clarity on the part of those in charge help those not in charge to stay calm and to trust that those in charge deserve to be in charge. In Shackleton’s case, that meant the following. Icebound for nearly 300 days, their ship, the Endurance sank. In anticipation, Shackleton had ordered evacuation and the establishment of a camp on the ice. Everyone had heard and felt the crushing grip of the ice for months and especially over the preceding few weeks. The moment to abandon ship came. Gathered on the ice, the expedition listened to Shackleton. Where would his legendary optimism and tenacity lead his thinking? Would he advocate pushing on with the mission to cross the continent? Shackleton, financially invested in this expedition up to and over the crown of his head, stated simply and calmly, ‘Ship and stores gone, so now we go home.’
  • Be optimistically problem centered, action focused, other oriented, and concrete. Restated, ‘This is reality. This is what’s going to happen. Here’s what we need to do.’ Given #1 above, Ernest Shackleton kept people busy in very specific tasks such as when he overheard an expedition member wondering out loud about whether it was worth carrying on. Shackleton asked the man to make tea for the group, which he did. Shackleton then noted with pleasure that the man had next washed his socks and carefully hung them out to dry. People need to see that they remain connected to others, that their efforts still matter, and, indeed, that they themselves still matter.
  • Create routine and structure. Reinforce order amidst the unknown and chaotic. A regular schedule of group and individual check-ins along with clear goals for this week or even this day help people keep their corner of the universe tidy. It’s high stakes feng shui. Specific short term tasks also enable people to maintain a sense of their own efficacy, a sense that they can influence their environment, that they should not give in or up.
  • Anxiety up, intelligence down…including yours. Adjust to this reality and keep it simple…in order to help you and others focus. It’s not the time for grand statements. Also, keep the real enemy in clear site. Look over the gunwales as much as possible and, as Shackleton did, move toward conflict, address it, tamp it down. Likely, it will not just ‘blow over’.
  • Get out there. Restated, don’t hang around headquarters when the shooting starts. Find your unit. Walk the parapet. People want to know that they’re not cut off, that they remain connected to the organization…that they matter. Talk to people regularly as a group and as individuals. Ühendust pidama. The presence of members of the chain of command supports a sense of connection and of being valued. Also, that higher ranking person often can, when needed, secure resources and make bigger decisions, a reality that helps people feel that they have or can get what they need in order to overcome the times, however hard.
  • Play… regularly. Shackleton organized and encouraged both a busy routine (see #3 above) and regular play such as slide shows, phonograph sessions, theatre, and football. He saved a banjo while discarding all non-essentials for the sake of lessening weight for travel. Today, science tells us the physiological and physiological benefits of laughter and of staying in touch with the joy of living. It’s why people join to sing across rooftops and balconies around the world as the sun goes down on another trying and isolated day. You and your people should too.

What do these practices look like amidst Covid-19? Scroll through a few stories about its handling by Angela Merkel, Jacinda Ardern, Lady Gaga (in combination with IBM’s Ginni Rametty and Pepsico’s Kirk Tanner) or Captain Crozier. As for how much in the end, any of this matters consider Sir Edmund Hillary, the first European to summit Mount Everest. Hillary also fulfilled Shackleton’s hope of crossing Antarctica, doing so as part of an expedition 40 years after Shackleton’s attempt. When asked about Shackleton, Hillary leaned on a quote often attributed to another Antarctic explorer, Sir Raymond Priestly: “For scientific discovery give me Scott for speed and efficiency of travel give me Amundsen but when disaster strikes and all hope is gone, get down on your knees and pray for Shackleton.” Or, consider what type of relationship do you want with your team, not just during, but after COVID-19?


Vaata videot: Μη Συμμορφώνεστε!! - Ντέιβιντ Άικ