Ameerika Hääl alustab ülekandeid Venemaale

Ameerika Hääl alustab ülekandeid Venemaale



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Sõnadega: „Tere! See on New Yorgi kõne, ”alustab USA Ameerika Hääl (VOA) oma esimesi raadiosaateid Nõukogude Liitu. VOA püüdlus oli oluline osa Ameerika propagandakampaaniast Nõukogude Liidu vastu külma sõja ajal.

VOA algas 1942. aastal raadiosaatena, mille eesmärk oli selgitada Ameerika poliitikat Teise maailmasõja ajal ja tugevdada selle liitlaste moraali kogu Euroopas, Aasias, Lähis -Idas ja Aafrikas. Pärast sõda jätkas VOA Ameerika külma sõja propagandaarsenali osana ja oli suunatud peamiselt Lääne -Euroopa publikule. Veebruaris 1947 alustas VOA oma esimesi venekeelseid saateid Nõukogude Liitu. Esialgne saade selgitas, et VOA kavatseb "anda kuulajatele NSV Liidus pildi elust Ameerikas". Uudised, inimeste huvi pakkuvad funktsioonid ja muusika moodustasid suurema osa programmeerimisest. Selle eesmärk oli anda vene publikule „puhas ja võltsimata tõde” elust väljaspool NSV Liitu. Voice of America lootis, et see „avardab mõistmise ja sõpruse aluseid Vene ja Ameerika rahva vahel”.

Üldiselt oli esimene programm üsna kuiv. Suur osa sellest käsitles lühikokkuvõtteid praegustest sündmustest, arutelusid selle üle, kuidas USA eelarve ja poliitiline süsteem töötasid, ning "uue sünteetilise keemilise aine nimega püribensamiin" äratavat analüüsi. Programmi muusika oli eklektiline, ulatudes “Türgist õlgedest” ja lõpetades Cole Porteri “Öö ja päevaga”. Lisaks oli halva ilma ja tehniliste raskuste tõttu helikvaliteet vene publiku jaoks üldiselt kehv. USA Nõukogude Liidu ametnike sõnul hindasid venelased programmi õiglaseks.

VOA ülekanded Venemaale aastatega mõnevõrra paranesid, eelkõige seetõttu, et muusika mängis üha olulisemat rolli. USA vaatlejad avastasid, et Nõukogude rahva isu Ameerika muusika, eriti džässi järele oli peaaegu rahuldamatu. Kui palju venelasi ülekandeid tegelikult kuulnud on, on ebakindel, kuid raudse eesriide tagant tulnud teated näitasid, et igal õhtul oodati pikisilmi paljusid VOA saateid, eriti muusikasektoreid. 1960. aastateks edastas VOA kõikidele kontinentidele mitukümmend keelt.

LOE LISAKS: Külma sõja ajalugu


VOA korraldati 1942. aastal sõjainfoameti all koos uudistesaadetega, mis olid suunatud Euroopale ja Saksamaa okupeeritud Põhja -Aafrikale. [3] VOA alustas ringhäälingut 24. veebruaril 1942, [4] kuid VOA märkis oma saidil, et alustas ringhäälingut 1. veebruaril 1942. [5] VOA kasutatavad saatjad pärinesid Columbia Broadcasting Systemi (CBS) kasutatud lühilaine saatjatest. ) ja Rahvusringhäälinguettevõte (NBC). Ameerika Hääl hakkas raadiosaateid Nõukogude Liitu edastama 17. veebruaril 1947.

Külma sõja ajal vähendati VOA eelarvet. 1. augustil 1953 eraldati VOA välisministeeriumist ja kuulutati teabeagentuuri alla. VOA kolis oma peakorteri New Yorgist Washingtoni. järgmine aasta. [3] 1959. aastal alustas VOA eriprogramme inglise keeles. [3] 1980. aastatel lisas VOA Kuubale, Raadio Martile ja TV Martile ka televisiooniteenuse ning piirkondlikud erisaated.

Üks VOA kuulsatest programmidest jäi meelde Willis Conoveri esitletud "Jazz Hourina". [6] See programm jätkus 40 aastat ja selle rekord jääb Ameerika ajaloo rahvusmuuseumisse, tuntud ka kui "" Smithsonian ". [7] [8]

Ameerika Hääl edastab 46 erinevat keelt. [2] Teleülekanded on tähistatud tärniga:


Miks on Ameerika hääl väljaspool USA -d oluline?

USA valitsuse rahastatav uudisteteenistus ütleb, et toimetuste sõltumatus ei võida ohtude muutuste tõttu ohtu. Ajakirjanik Adam Harris vaatab, mida tähendab Ameerika hääl ameeriklastele ja muule maailmale.

Ringhäälingu juhatajate nõukogu (BBG) direktor lubab Ameerika Hääle (VOA) ja teiste partnerite töötajatele, et nende toimetuse "tulemüür" koos USA poliitikakujundajatega "jääb pühaks", hoolimata selle struktuuri muudatustest.

Uus kaitse -eelnõu on tekitanud muret VOA ja selle sidusettevõtete, Vaba Euroopa Raadio/Raadio Vabadus, Kuuba ringhäälingu büroo, Vaba Aasia raadio ja Lähis -Ida ringhäälinguvõrgu järelevalve pärast.

BBG loodi toimima & kvoodi tulemüürina USA valitsuse poliitikakujundajate ja ajakirjanike vahel, et kaitsta toimetuse sõltumatust.

Kuid uus seadus koondab võimu BBG -s presidendi poolt ametisse nimetatud ja senati poolt heaks kiidetud tegevjuhi kätte.

Muudatus tekitas ärevust, et tulevased presidendid võivad võimas propagandavahendina kasutada võrgustikke, mis jõuavad 287 miljoni inimeseni 100 riigis 61 keeles.

BBC-le saadetud e-kirjas ütles VOA direktor Amanda Bennett töötajatele, et "seadusandlus ei muuda BBG 's kohustuslikku tulemüüri", mis on mõeldud puhverdamiseks valitsuse ja uudistetoimetuse vahel.

"Tulemüür on püha ja täiesti jõus ning tagab jätkuvalt eranditult meie ajakirjanike ja ringhäälinguorganisatsioonide professionaalse sõltumatuse," kirjutas Bennett, lisades, et tegevjuht on "seaduslikult kohustatud järgima ja jälgima tulemüüri".

Ameerika hääl käivitati 1942. aastal alternatiivina natside ja Jaapani propaganda vastu võitlemiseks. Selle esimene saade - BBC poolt USA -le laenatud saatja kaudu - näitas tagasihoidlikku eesmärki.

"Täna ja edaspidi räägime teile iga päev Ameerikast ja sõjast," ütles ajakirjanik William Harlan Hale. & quot; Uudis võib meile kasulik olla. Uudised võivad olla halvad. Aga me ütleme teile tõde. "

Ameerika Hääle endise režissööri David Ensori sõnul pidasid nad sellest missioonist kinni isegi süngetel algusaegadel.

& quot; Esimese aasta või kaks olid uudised halvad. Kaotusi oli mitmeid, kuid VOA teatas sellest ustavalt, "ütleb Ensor.

1976. aastal allkirjastas president Gerald Ford VOA 's avaliku harta, kaitstes organisatsiooni toimetuste sõltumatust, ja 1994. aastaks loodi BBG, mis jälgis mittesõjalist ringhäälingut.

2013. aastal võimaldas seadusemuudatus VOA -l ja sidusettevõtetel alustada ringhäälingut Ameerika Ühendriikides.

& quot; Mõned inimesed arvavad, et VOA on või peaks olema valitsuse propagandaharu. Kuid VOA ei ole propagandaäris, vaid tõeäris, "ütleb Ensor.

"VOA ümbermõtestamiseks on tehtud jõupingutusi," jätkas ta, "kuid vaatajaskonna kasv tuleneb usaldusväärsuse suurendamisest." Ja ainus viis usaldusväärsuse suurendamiseks on tõe rääkimine. & Quot

Viimased mured õhutanud õigusaktid on maetud riigikaitselubade seadusse (NDAA) 2017. aastaks. Kaitsekulutusi lubav NDAA võib "aeg-ajalt lubada teatud kaitset puudutavaid tegevusi", ütles VOA direktor Bennetti ja #x27s e-kiri töötajatele.

NDAA osana võeti uus meede vastu senatis 92-7 häälega ja see suunab ringhäälingu juhatajate nõukogu võimu presidendi määratud tegevjuhi kätte.

Samuti kaotab see juhatuse rolli BBG juhina.

Juhatuse praegustel liikmetel on lubatud oma ametiaeg täita "nõuandva ülesandena", kuid neil ei ole enam "otsustus-, poliitikakujundus- ega juhtimisülesandeid".

Kui tegevjuht on heaks kiidetud, töötab ta kolm aastat ja on Valge Maja ees vastutav.

Muudatust juhtis esindajatekoja väliskomisjoni esimees Edward Royce, vabariiklane Californiast ja tal oli kahepoolne toetus.

Vabariiklaste kongressi abide sõnul olid esimees Royce'i ärevil sõltumatud auditid, mis näitasid ebatõhusust osalise tööajaga BBG juhatuses.

BBG tippjuhtkonna kinnitus ei ole kõiki hirme maandanud.

Nii praegused kui ka endised uudistetoimetuse töötajad on sõltumata poliitilisest kuuluvusest mures tulemüüri rikkumiste pärast. Mõned viitasid BBG raekodades toimunud tõusule, et arutada eelseisvaid muudatusi, kuna ka messing on murettekitav.

"Ausalt öeldes ei huvita mind, kas see on demokraat või vabariiklane Valges Majas," ütleb Carolyn Presutti, Washingtoni VOA korrespondent.

& quot; Me ei saa olla administratsiooni osa, kui tahame jääda erapooletuks, kui me tahame jääda usaldusväärseks, kui me tahame jääda usaldusväärseks. & quot;

BBG praegune tegevjuht John Lansing ütles novembri ja#x27 juhatuse koosolekul, et tulemüür võimaldab meil olla usaldusväärsed kogu maailmas, kus usaldusväärsus on languses.

"Sel määral, et BBG -võrgud on ainus usaldusväärne või esmane usaldusväärne uudiste ja teabe allikas maailma osades, mis nälgivad uudiseid ja teavet, on see kriitiline ülesanne, mida me siin kaitseme."

Selles peitub BBG tegelik väärtus, ütleb Kesk -Aasia kirjanik ja uurija Sarah Kendzior.

Suur osa VOA ja Vaba Euroopa Raadio (RFE) tehtud parimatest reportaažidest ei ole inglise keeles ega Ameerika kohta.

Usbekistani puhul oleks sunnitööst ja lapstööst teatamata jäänud, kui mitte Vaba Euroopa Raadio ja VOA, ütles Kendzior.

Ta ütleb, et VOA ja RFE toimetuse sõltumatuse kaotamise väljavaate suurimate tagajärgedega peavad silmitsi seisma nende välisreporterid, kes üritavad aru anda oma riigi tingimustest ja elanikkonnast, keda nad teenindavad.

"Kõiki neid probleeme riikides, kus puudub sõltumatu meedia, ei käsitleta riigis," ütles ta. "Aga [neid] katab raadio Vaba Euroopa/Ameerika hääl."

& quot

Jeff Swicord, 25-aastane Ameerika Voice'i veteran, on näinud BBG võrgustiku ajakirjanikke, kes töötavad vaenulikes riikides, tagajärgedega silmitsi.

"Olen ' olnud üsna palju välismaal ja asjad, millest me teatame, jõuavad sinna," ütleb Swicord. & quot; Meil ​​'ve oli sihitud inimesi. Selles agentuuris on ausalt öeldes tapetud nende heaks töötanud inimesed, kes on nende heaks töötanud. "

Hoolimata mõnest hirmust jäi VOA direktor Bennett lootusrikkaks.

"See on teistsugune struktuur, sellel on häid ja halbu asju," ütleb ta uue seaduse kohta. "Aga me tõesti usume oma missiooni."


VOA läbi aastate

Aastal 1939 ennustas Ameerika näitekirjanik Robert Sherwood, kellest sai president Franklin Roosevelti ja hiljem "Ameerika Hääle isa", kõnekirjanik, rahvusvahelise ringhäälingu mõju, kui ta ütles:

& quot; Me elame ajastul, mil suhtlemine on saavutanud muinasjutulise tähtsuse. Inimsoos on uus otsustav jõud, võimsam kui kõik türannid. See on massilise mõtte jõud-mõte, mille on esile kutsunud tugevalt öeldud sõnad. "

Sel aastal oli Ameerika Ühendriigid ainus maailma suurriik, millel polnud valitsuse toetatud rahvusvahelist raadioteenust. Madalmaad olid esimesed riigid, kes suunasid regulaarselt ette nähtud saateid väljaspool oma piire, avades 1927. aastal lühilaineprogrammi Kaug-Idasse. Nähes raadiot välispoliitika instrumendina, ehitas Nõukogude Liit Moskvasse raadiokeskuse ja edastas 1930. aasta lõpuks 50 keelt ja murret. Itaalia ja Suurbritannia alustasid oma vastavaid "teenuseid" 1932. aastal, järgnes järgmisel aastal Prantsusmaa. Natsi -Saksamaa ehitas 1933. aastal tohutu saatjate võrgu ja hakkas Austriasse vaenulikku propagandat edastama. Samal aastal alustas Berliin lühilaineülekandeid Ladina -Ameerikasse. Vahepeal kasutas Jaapan raadio abil oma riiklikke ambitsioone Kaug -Idas.

Vaatamata paljude silmapaistvate tegelaste, sealhulgas New Yorgi kongressi esindaja Emmanuel Celleri (kes esitas seaduseelnõusid aastatel 1937, 1938 ja 1939, et luua valitsusjaam, mis suudaks vastata Saksamaa propagandale) jõupingutustele, sisenes USA 1940. aastatesse ilma plaanita ametnikku luua USA kohalolek rahvusvahelistel eetritel.

Ameerika Ühendriikide lühilaineressursid koosnesid veidi üle tosina väikese võimsusega, kaubanduslikult omandis olevast ja kasutatavast saatjast.

1941. aastal rentis Ameerika Ühendriikide Ameerika asjade koordinaator (CIAA) mitmed neist erasaatjatest Ladina-Ameerikasse edastamiseks. 1941. aasta keskel asutas president Roosevelt USA välisinfo teenistuse (FIS) ja nimetas selle esimeseks direktoriks kõnekirjaniku Sherwoodi. Lähtudes usust ideede jõusse ja vajadusest edastada Ameerika seisukohti välismaal, rentis Sherwood New Yorgis asuva peakorteri jaoks ruumi, värbas ajakirjanikke ja hakkas tootma materjali eraettevõtte Ameerika lühilainejaamade Euroopasse edastamiseks. . Sherwood rääkis ka Londoni ametnikega võimalusest edastada FIS -i materjal Briti ringhäälinguorganisatsiooni (BBC) vahendite kaudu.

Jaapani rünnakuga Pearl Harbori vastu ja Saksamaa sõjakuulutamisega USA vastu läks Sherwood suurele käigule. Ta palus teatritootjal, autoril ja lavastajal John Housemanil juhtida FIS -i raadiooperatsioone New Yorgis.

1941. aasta detsembris tegi FIS oma esimesed otseülekanded Aasiasse San Francisco stuudiost. 1. veebruaril 1942-vähem kui kaks kuud pärast Ameerika Ühendriikide astumist II maailmasõda-edastas FIS oma esimese ülekande Euroopasse BBC keskmise ja pika laine saatjate kaudu. Kuulutaja William Harlan Hale avas saksakeelse programmi sõnadega: „Me toome teieni hääli Ameerikast. Täna ja edaspidi räägime teile iga päev Ameerikast ja sõjast. See uudis võib meile kasulik olla. Uudised võivad olla halvad. Aga me ütleme teile tõe. "

VOA lubas algusest peale oma kuulajatele tõtt rääkida, olenemata sellest, kas uudis oli hea või halb. Nagu John Houseman hiljem ütles: "Tegelikult oli meil vähe valikut. Paratamatult olid uudised, mida Ameerika Hääl 1942. aasta esimesel poolel maailmale toob, peaaegu kõik halvad. Kuna Jaapani sissetungid järgnesid üksteisele haiglase regulaarsusega ja natside armeed liikusid üha sügavamale Venemaale ja Lähis -Idasse, siis pidime oma tagasipöördumistest ilma nastimiseta teatama. Ainult nii suudame luua aususe maine, mis lootis end ära tasuda sellel kaugel, kuid vältimatul päeval, mil hakkame oma sissetungidest ja võitudest teatama. "

1942. aasta juuniks kasvas VOA kiiresti ja tal oli uus organisatsiooniline kodu-sõjainfo büroo (OWI). Liitlaste tippkohtumise Casablancas toimumise ajal oli konstrueeritud 23 saatjat ja eetris 27 keeleteenistust.

Sõja lõppedes aga vähendati või kaotati paljud VOA ringhäälinguteenused. Siis teatas 1945. aasta lõpus välisministeeriumi määratud eraisikute komitee, mida juhtis Columbia ülikooli professor Arthur McMahon, et USA valitsus ei saa olla „ükskõikne, kuidas meie ühiskonda teistele riikidele kujutatakse.” Sellest tulenevalt 31. detsembril 1945. aastal anti VOA ja CIAA ringhäälinguteenused Ladina -Ameerikasse üle välisministeeriumile ning Kongress eraldas vastumeelselt raha nende jätkamiseks 1946. ja 1947. aastal.

Vastumeelne toetus rahvusvahelisele ringhäälingule kadus 1948. aastal. Sel aastal mõjutasid kongressi liikmeid tugevalt külma sõja eskaleerumine ning Nõukogude Liidu ja Nõukogude Liidu kontrolli all olevate riikide vaenulik rahvusvaheline ringhääling. Berliini blokaad 1948. aastal kinnitas maailma raadiohääle vajalikkust maailmale. Smithi-Mundti seaduse jõustumine sel aastal kehtestas jäädavalt Ameerika rahvusvahelised teabe- ja kultuurivahetusprogrammid, mida VOA oli juba viimased kuus aastat iseseisvalt täitnud.

Järgmise kahe aasta jooksul arutasid USA valitsuse ametnikud Ameerika ametliku rahvusvahelise ringhäälinguteenuse õiget rolli. Kas see oli uudiste edastamiseks ja Ameerika kajastamiseks või kasutati seda USA välispoliitika instrumendina ja "relvana" Nõukogude Liidu vastu? Kongress nägi seda üha enam viimase rolli täitjana. Pärast Korea sõja puhkemist 1950. aastal lisas VOA uusi keeleteenuseid ja töötas välja plaanid ehitada saatekompleksid nii USA ida- kui ka läänerannikule.

1953. aasta alguses juhtis senaator Joseph McCarthy mitu nädalat kestnud kuulamisi, et uurida VOA programmeerimis- ja inseneripraktikaid ning väiteid, et kommunismi soosivas hooletuses süüdi on töötajad ja küsitlejad. & Quot; Uurimine uuris ka juhtimistavasid ja plaane uute VOA -saatjate ehitamiseks. Kuigi süüdistusi õõnestavas tegevuses ei tõestatud kunagi, järgnesid laialdased vallandamised ja tagasiastumised. Pärast kongressi kuulamisi vähendati VOA eelarvet, saatjate ehitusprogramm peatati ja mitmed keeleteenused lõpetati.

Kuid juba enne McCarthy kuulamiste lõppu oli president Dwight Eisenhoweri määratud komisjon alustanud USA välisinfo, sealhulgas Ameerika Hääle, läbivaatamist. Komisjon, mida juhtis endine president Herbert Hoover, jõudis järeldusele, et need programmid tuleks eraldada välisministeeriumist. 1. augustil 1953 loodi Ameerika Ühendriikide teabeagentuur ja VOAst sai selle suurim üksus. Aasta hiljem kolis VOA oma peakorteri New Yorgist oma praegusele asukohale Independence Avenue'is, SW, mitte kaugel USA Kapitooliumist Washingtonis.

Ungari ja Suessi kriisid, Ameerika-Nõukogude tippkohtumise algus ning kosmoseajastu koidik 1950. aastate lõpus ja 1960. aastate alguses pakkusid VOA-le uusi võimalusi pakkuda usaldusväärseid ja põhjalikke aruandeid maailma sündmustest. Tutvustati Ameerikat kajastavat uut ja loomingulist programmeerimist. Aastal 1959 avas VOA spetsiaalse inglise keele-aeglase tempoga lihtsustatud ingliskeelsed saated-, et hõlbustada miljonite kuulajate arusaamist.

1960. aastal kiitis USIA direktor George Allen heaks VOA harta, mille VOA töötajad olid koostanud aastatel 1958–1959, et panna kirjalikult ametlik avaldus põhimõtetest, mis reguleerivad VOA saateid. Harta ütles osaliselt, et:

(1) VOA on pidevalt usaldusväärne ja autoriteetne uudisteallikas. VOA uudised on täpsed, objektiivsed ja kõikehõlmavad.

(2) VOA esindab Ameerikat, mitte ühtegi Ameerika ühiskonna segmenti ning esitab seetõttu tasakaalustatud ja tervikliku projektsiooni Ameerika olulistest mõtetest ja institutsioonidest.

(3) VOA tutvustab selgelt ja tõhusalt Ameerika Ühendriikide poliitikat ning esitab ka vastutustundlikke arutelusid ja arvamusi nende poliitikate kohta.

Juulis 1976 toetasid esindaja Bela Abzug ja senaator Charles Percy õigusakte, millega muudeti VOA harta avalik-õiguslikuks 94-350. President Gerald Ford kirjutas õigusaktidele alla 12. juulil 1976.

John Houseman meenutas täielikku nimekirja meestest ja naistest, kes moodustasid ja toitsid Ameerika Häält lapsekingades. , majandusteadlased, filosoofid, luuletajad, kunstnikud, muusikud, haridustöötajad ja rahastajad-sellist kuulsust oma eelmises ja tulevases elus, et on peaaegu võimatu uskuda, et nad kõik on kunagi ühe katuse alla koondatud. "

Kakskümmend viis aastat hiljem kirjutas endine direktor John Chancellor: "Ameerika Hääle kohta on omapärane hämmastav tipptase. Tulin sinna tööle koos kõrvalseisja tavapäraste arusaamade ja väärarusaamadega. Ma arvasin, et see on rahulik ja väärikas ringhäälinguorganisatsioonide rühm. Oma üllatuseks avastasin, et hindasin valesti-tõepoolest-kisa-Hääle sees. See oli nagu uhke hoonesse sisenemine, et leida elanikke, kes hoidsid kohutavate vaidlustega seinu püsti. Koha suhtes valitseb peen hullumeelne hullumeelsus ja pärast poolteist aastat oma harjavarre poole pöördumist vaatan Häält ja selle töötajaid uhkuse ja kiindumusega. "" Ta jätkas: "Nad on, tähelepanuväärsel määral vaimu ja intelligentsusega inimesed, kelle kirg on esindada Ameerika Ühendriike parimal võimalikul viisil. "

1960ndatel ja 1970ndatel astus VOA hiiglaslikke samme maailma juhtiva rahvusvahelise ringhäälinguorganisatsiooni poole. Direktor Henry Loomise ametiajal aastatel 1958–1965 kirjutati VOA harta ning laiendati tehnilisi võimalusi ja programmeerimist igale poole maailma.

Kui NBC uudistejuht John Chancellor 1965. aastal ohjad enda kätte võttis, lubas ta, et VOA saated "õõtsuvad veidi." VOA hakkas tootma elavamaid ja loovamaid saateid nii inglise keeles kui ka selle keeles. Uudiste kogumise ressursse suurendati, võimaldades rohkem otseülekandeid kohapeal. 1969. aastal, kui Neil Armstrong astus jala Kuule, häälestati ligi 800 miljonit inimest Ameerika Häälele või sadadele jaamadele üle maailma, mis edastasid VOA otseülekannet. Aastal 1977 sai VOAst esimene rahvusvaheline ringhäälinguorganisatsioon, kes kasutas täiskohaga satelliitsideahelat, et edastada programme oma stuudiotest ülemereterritooriumide edastusjaama-antud juhul VOA araabia programme Washingtonist kuni Kreeka saare häälsaatjateni. Rhodos.

Kenneth Giddensi direktori ametiajal aastatel 1969–1977, mis oli pikim kõigist VOA direktoritest, suurendas VOA dramaatiliselt oma usaldusväärsust, esitades otsekoheselt teateid kahest rahvast traumeerinud sündmusest-Vietnami sõjast ja Watergate'i põhjustatud põhiseaduslikest kriisidest. VOA reportaažid ei pälvinud mitte ainult Ameerika ajakirjanduse, vaid ka kuulajate kiitust kõikjal maailmas, sest kümned tuhanded kirjutasid, et väljendada oma imetlust VOA igakülgse ja objektiivse kajastuse üle.

Nõukogude ja Nõukogude bloki segamise lõpetamine, mis toimus kogu külma sõja ajal, Hiinas laienev publik ja uute ja laiendatud programmide kasutuselevõtt kuulajatele Iraanis, Afganistanis ja Poolas, avas VOA-le tohutult uusi vaatajaskondi. Kuid nagu Giddens oli ennustanud, oli VOA potentsiaal jõuda üha suurema hulga maailma kodanikeni ebapiisavate ressursside tõttu. 1970. aastate lõppedes oli lõhe VOA ulatuslike programmeerimisnõuete ja rahastamise taseme vahel toonud kaasa tõsiseid puudusi nii personalis kui ka rajatistes. Peaaegu igas keeleteenistuses oli vähe töötajaid. Ei olnud ebatavaline, et tõlkijad-diktorid töötasid kaks ja kolm nädalat ilma puhkepäevadeta. VOA vananenud ateljeed ja juhtimiskompleks lagunesid üha sagedamini, hoolimata sellest, et pühendunud tehnilised töötajad, kes on valmis tootma varuosi, mida enam ei toodeta, pingutavad.

Kuulajad kurtsid mitmel pool maailmas, et VOA signaalid kõlasid nõrgalt ja moonutatult. 1980. aastate alguseks olid paljud VOA saatjad üle kolmekümne aasta vanad ja mõned üle neljakümne. Vähesed olid võimelised tootma 500 000-vatiseid signaale, mida genereerisid VOA juhtivad konkurendid. Ja konkurents ise kasvas. Kaheksakümnendate aastate keskel tungis rahvusvahelisse spektrisse umbes 160 jaama, programmeerides rohkem kui 25 000 tundi nädalas.

1983. aastal käivitas VOA 1,3 miljardi dollari suuruse programmi VOA programmeerimise ja tehniliste võimaluste taastamiseks ja kaasajastamiseks. Tolleaegsete valitsust hõlmavate eelarvepiirangute tõttu oli VOA aga sunnitud vähendama sellele projektile eraldatud vahendeid. Vaatamata väiksemale rahastamisele valmisid Botswanas, Marokos, Tais, Kuveidis ja Sao Tome'is järgmise paari aasta jooksul suured ja uuendatud raadiosaaterajatised. Washingtonis ehitati üheksateist "kaasaegseima" stuudiot, paigaldati uus Master Controli kompleks ja ehitati võrgu juhtimiskeskus, mis koordineerib ja suunab VOA kodumaiseid ja ülemeredeedet.

Samal ajal uuendati raadiorajatisi kogu maailmas, võttis USIA presidendilt vastu veel ühe direktiivi - tutvustada maailmale interaktiivset televisiooni, kasutades kasvavaid satelliitsüsteeme. 1983. aasta lõpus sündis VOA sõsareagentuur WORLDNET Television. Kahetunnine interaktiivne saade ühendas stuudiod Barbadosel, New Yorgis ja Washingtonis ning saatkonnad Bonnis, Londonis, Haagis, Roomas ja Brüsselis.

1985. aastal asutas Kongress Kuubale eriteenistuse, mida tuntakse Radio Martina, mis edastas selle riigi uudiseid. Kuigi Raadio Marti järgis VOA toimetamisjuhiseid, tegutses see eraldi Voice'ist ja oma Washingtoni stuudiotest. Teleteenus TV Marti läks eetrisse 1990. aastal ning 1996. aastal alustasid raadio ja TV Marti oma tegevuse üleviimist Miamisse, mis lõpeb 1998. aastaks.

VOA mandariini- ja kantoni saateid suurendati 1989. aastal, et tuua kümneid ja võib-olla sadu miljoneid Hiina kuulajaid täpseid teateid demokraatiat pooldava liikumise kohta, mis täitis Pekingi Tiananmeni väljakut ja kümnete Hiina linnade tänavaid. Sügisel ja talvel teatas VOA ajaloolistest muutustest, mis hõlmasid Ida-Euroopat ja Nõukogude Liitu-muudatustest, mida mõned on omistanud vähemalt osaliselt Häälele ja teistele lääne rahvusvahelistele ringhäälinguorganisatsioonidele. Ja 1990. aastate saabudes kajastas VOA Russian 1991. aasta augusti riigipöördekatset toonase Nõukogude Liidu juhi Mihhail Gorbatšovi vastu ja Nõukogude Liidu lagunemist sama aasta lõpus.

Pärast Sõltumatute Riikide Ühenduse (C.I.S.) moodustamist ja kommunistlike valitsuste kokkuvarisemist kogu Ida -Euroopas jätkas VOA igapäevast uudiste ja teabe voogu sellesse piirkonda. Kõik need äsja moodustatud valitsused on püüdnud vahelduva eduga omaks võtta demokraatiat ja selle aluspõhimõtteid. Ida -Euroopa juhid, nagu Tšehhi Vabariigi Vaclav Havel, palusid läänel aidata neil mõista, kuidas rajada demokraatlike institutsioonide infrastruktuur. VOA vastas programmidega, mille eesmärk oli selgitada, kuidas demokraatia Läänes toimib ja kuidas turumajandus toimib.

Kuigi oli suur vajadus säilitada VOA ülekandeid C.I.S. ja Ida -Euroopas jätkas Ameerika Hääl uudiste ja teabe edastamist inimestele mujal maailmas. 25. märtsil 1991 käivitas VOA 15-minutilise Tiibeti programmi, mille Hiina valitsus hakkas viivitamatult moosima. Kurdikeelsed ülekanded kuulajatele Iraagis ja Iraanis jõudsid eetrisse 25. aprillil 1992. Somaalia saated algasid 27. detsembril 1992, kuid lõpetati kohe pärast kõigi USA vägede väljaviimist sellest riigist.

Vastuseks endise Jugoslaavia lagunemisele 1991. aastal mitmeks vabariigiks jagas VOA 21. veebruaril 1993. aastal oma Jugoslaavia teenistuse kaheks eraldi keeleteenistuseks-horvaadi ja serbia-. VOA Sloveenia teenistus säilitas pideva uudiste- ja teabevoo kuulajatele Balkanil. Bosnia teenistus lisati 1996. aastal ja Makedoonia teenistus 1999. aastal.

Samuti asutas VOA Horvaatia ja Serbia kohalike raadiojaamade võrgustiku, et edastada VOA toodetud saateid. 1. oktoobril 1996 hakkas raadio 101 FM edastama horvaadikõnet VOA, mis tegi sellest esimese jaama Zagrebis, mis võttis oma ajakavasse rahvusvahelise ringhäälinguorganisatsiooni saateid. Samal aastal suurendas VOA Serbian oma igapäevaseid saateid kahe ja poole tunnini, kui lisas 30-minutilise keskmise laine raadiosaate. 1996. aasta lõpuks, mil puhkesid Milosevići vastased meeleavaldused, käivitas VOA Serbian oma 30-minutilise telesaate, Ava stuudio.

22. aprillil 1996. aastal loodi otseülekandega 15-minutiline VOA Bosnia "voo" teenus, mis edastati kohalikele raadiojaamadele satelliidi kaudu. Hiljem suurendas VOA bosniakeelset saadet 30 minutini ja käivitas otseülekanded bosnia keeles sama hilja aastal.

Kui Milosevici valitsus Belgradis keelas 3. detsembril 1996 Raadio B-92 ja teiste sõltumatute kohalike raadiojaamade saated, lisas VOA oma uudistesaadete kohta teateid Belgradi ründajatelt, kellest paljud töötasid ka raadios B-92. Mõistes, et see ei suuda infovoogu lämmatada, lubas Milosevici valitsus raadio B-92 kaks päeva hiljem, 5. detsembril, saateid uuesti alustada. Samal päeval, kui B-92 oma saateid alustas, alustas VOA raadios ja televisioonis piloossimulsaate kell on 11.30 (Serbia kohaliku aja järgi) uudisteülekanne. Saadet kandsid Serbia sõltumatud telejaamad, mille potentsiaalne vaatajaskond oli neli miljonit.

15. juulil 1996 lisas Ameerika Hääl saateid Tigrigna ja Afan Oromo-selle 49. ja 50. keeles-kuulajatele Etioopias ja Eritreas. Tigrigna on üks Eritrea iseseisva riigi töökeeli ja Etioopia suurim etniline rühm räägib afanoromo keelt. Need kaks keelt ühinesid VOA amhara keelega, mis on eetris olnud alates 1982. aastast.

Samal päeval tutvustas VOA konfliktiga räsitud Kesk-Aafrikas kuulajatele kirundi- ja kinarwanda keele programmeerimist. VOA, mis edastas piirkonda juba inglise, prantsuse ja suahiili keeles, suurendas oma vaatajaskonda. USA Rahvusvahelise Arengu Agentuuri rahastusel jõudsid need kaks teenust-VOA 51. ja 52. keel-eetrisse 15. juulil 1996 30-minutilise nädalapäevakavaga. Järgmisel novembril laiendasid nad saadet seitsmele päevale nädalas ja kuu aega hiljem suurendasid laupäevaseid ja pühapäevaseid saateid ühe tunnini.

VOA asutas 1996. aastal ka pagulaste vihjeliinid nii Balkanil kui ka Kesk -Aafrikas. VOA Serbia ja Horvaatia avasid oma vihjeliini 14. augustil ning Kirundi ja Kinyarwanda 30. novembril. Mõlema piirkonna VOA keeleülekanded pakkusid kuulajatele vahendeid, mille kaudu neid uuesti ühendada sõprade ja perega, keda lahutavad sõda ja isiklikud raskused.

Kui Tirana ja teiste Albaania linnade kodanikud protesteerisid 1997. aasta veebruaris ebaseaduslike finantsskeemide leviku vastu, olid VOA Albaania saated selle riigi elanikele peamine uudisteallikas. 1997. aasta märtsiks oli kriis süvenenud tsiviilkonflikti ning Albaania valitsus katkestas lühiajaliselt VOA Albaania programmi kanalite edastamise kohalikele sidusjaamadele Tiranas, Elbasanis, Gjirokasteris, Shkoderis ja Kukeses. VOA laiendas oma eetriaegu nii lühilaine- kui ka kesklaine ajal kriisi haripunktis, et pakkuda Albaania inimestele võimalikult palju uudiseid.

In 1997, an agreement signed between the International Broadcasting Bureau and Asia Satellite Telecommunications Company (AsiaSat) gave the Voice of America and other U.S. government civilian international broadcasters access to AsiaSat 2, a satellite with a footprint reaching more than sixty percent of the world's population. By satellite, VOA, WORLDNET Television and Film Service, Radio Free Asia and Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, provided 24-hour, seven-day-a-week service to listeners and viewers in more than 53 countries in Asia, the Middle East, Australia and much of the Commonwealth of Independent States. Affiliated stations and listeners and viewers using small satellite dishes could receive stereo radio and television programming.

Starting in 1990, all U.S. government international broadcasting services began to work more closely together. That year the U.S. Information Agency, VOA's parent Agency, established the Bureau of Broadcasting to consolidate its three programming services--the Voice of America, WORLDNET Television and Film Service and Radio and TV Marti--into one cohesive and efficient broadcasting element, supported by a single Office of Engineering and Technical Operations.

In 1991, the Bureau created the Office of Affiliate Relations and Audience Analysis (renamed the Office of Affiliate Relations and Media Training in 1996) to establish and maintain a network of "affiliated" radio and TV stations around the globe that would broadcast VOA- and WORLDNET-produced programs. Today, more than 2,500 radio, TV, and digital media outlets received content from VOA and its sister media organizations.

The Office of Business Development was established in 1994 to work with the private sector on a wide range of ventures, including the possible privatization of VOA language services, procurement of corporate underwriting for broadcasts, co-productions with major broadcast networks and fundraising from various foundations. (These initiatives benefited not only VOA, but also WORLDNET Television and Film Service and Radio and TV Marti.) From 1994 through 1996, the office raised $4 million.

U.S. government international broadcasting was consolidated even further when President Clinton signed the International Broadcasting Act (Public Law 103-236) on April 30, 1994. The legislation established the International Broadcasting Bureau (IBB) within the U.S. Information Agency (USIA) and created a Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG) with oversight authority over all non-military U.S. government international broadcasting. The Voice of America, WORLDNET Television and Film Service and Radio and TV Marti--the three federally-funded services of the former Bureau of Broadcasting--comprised the IBB. The bipartisan BBG included the USIA Director (ex officio) and eight members appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. The first Broadcasting Board of Governors was sworn in on August 11, 1995.

The BBG provided oversight for VOA, the WORLDNET Television Service and Radio and TV Marti, as well as two grantee international broadcast services--Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) and Radio Free Asia (RFA). (RFA was established under the 1994 legislation.) RFE/RL and RFA are private, non-profit corporations that receive annual congressionally-appropriated grants from the Broadcasting Board of Governors.

The International Broadcasting Act also centralized the Office of Engineering within IBB, making it responsible for planning and maintaining transmission facilities for VOA, WORLDNET and Radio and TV Marti as well as Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty and Radio Free Asia. Transmitter sites that had formerly broadcast RFE/RL programs to the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe were integrated into a single network operated by the IBB Engineering.

In 1998, the Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring Act abolished the U.S. Information Agency and made the Broadcasting Board of Governors an independent entity with the mandate to provide oversight for all U.S. government-supported international broadcasting. This included the Voice of America, WORLDNET Television and Film Service, Radio and TV Marti, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, and Radio Free Asia.

In 2002, the Arabic-language Radio Sawa, which means “Together,” was established to reach audiences in the Middle East, particularly the younger generation. Its format was a mix of contemporary American and Middle East artists, along with newscasts broadcast on the quarter hour so that they would not compete with newscasts in the region. Two years later, Television Alhurra was established. Currently, Alhurra broadcasts under the Middle East Broadcasting Networks (MBN), which is funded through congressionally-appropriated grants from the U.S. Congress through the United States Agency for Global Media (USAGM), formelrly known as the BBG.

Today, the Voice of America is part of the independent USAGM as well as Radio and TV Marti, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Radio Free Asia, and the Middle East Broadcasting Networks. The USAGM serves as a firewall to protect the independence of U.S. civilian international broadcasting, although at the end of 2016, Congress passed legislation that abolished the nine-member bipartisan board, which had provided guidance and oversight, and replaced it with a five-member board with an advisory role. A Chief Executive Officer will oversee the day-to-day operations of the agency.

Although historically known solely as an international radio broadcaster, VOA began to simulcast programs on TV and radio in the mid-1990s. The first, "China Forum TV," aired on September 18, 1994. This one-hour Mandarin telecast was beamed into the Peoples Republic of China by satellite. Two years later, VOA's Arabic Branch teamed up with WORLDNET Television Service and the Middle East Broadcasting Centre (MBC) in London to launch "Dialogue with the West." The success of these two programs encouraged VOA, with the assistance of WORLDNET Television, to build the new TV Studio 47 at its headquarters. The first program, a Farsi simulcast, was telecast on October 18, 1996. Since the first Farsi program, VOA has aired simulcasts in Arabic, English, Farsi, Mandarin and Serbian VOA Russian and Thai services prerecorded programs for local stations in their respective countries.

In 1996 the Office of Engineering and Technical Operations also began a multi-million dollar program to transition the VOA’s broadcast production infrastructure from analog to digital operations. The multi-year program launched a series of improvements which developed a digital news management capability and transitioned VOA’s radio broadcast production systems from reel-to-reel tape to digital.

The official WORLDNET merger with VOA in 2004, completed the integration of TV and Radio production within Services that had been percolating within the VOA since the early 1990’s. This unified and enhanced VOA’s broadcast efforts resulting in a rapid expansion in VOA’s TV audience. To keep up with this “explosion” in the shift to TV, a full-scale modernization effort was launched, this time led by VOA’s Operations Directorate. New studios were constructed and a full analog to digital conversion of the television technical infrastructure was completed. Today the VOA produces and broadcasts more than 120 weekly hours of original TV programming over eight satellite network channels, with TV being the largest percentage of audience share by platform. VOA operates 50 radio studios and 14 television studios for live broadcasts and for producing programs.

VOA’s early steps into digital media were met with caution starting in 1993, when VOA began to explore the possibility of placing its content on the Web. A couple obstacles had to be overcome. The first was the Smith-Mundt Act of 1948 that prohibited distribution of VOA content inside the United States. The General Counsel’s Office at the U.S. Information Agency, VOA parent agency at the time, objected because placing VOA content on the web violated Smith-Mundt’s prohibition of distribution of content in the United States.

Chris Kern, then chief of the VOA Computer Services Division, had several meetings with a USIA attorney to convince her that traffic on the Internet was not “directed explicitly from sender to recipient.”… Kern recalls, “I ultimately persuaded her that putting VOA program product on the Internet was analogous to transmitting it via shortwave radio: residents of the United States could receive our shortwave broadcasts if they wanted to, although they weren't the intended audience and we didn't do anything to encourage them.”

The next hurdle was unexpectedly from inside VOA. The News Division didn’t want their correspondent reports automatically uploaded to the Web. “On rare occasion, an error would be discovered in a report after it had been transmitted on our internal newswire, and the newsroom would issue a "kill" notice informing the VOA broadcast services that it could no longer be used,” Kern recalls. “The kill notice immediately put an end to any further dissemination via radio, but obviously that wouldn't work with an erroneous report that had been posted to the 'Net.”

The issues surrounding posting VOA content were eventually ironed out, and in January 1994, the Voice of America became the first international broadcaster to offer its material through the Internet. Initially, select files were offered through FTP and Gopher protocols, the primary way of disseminating files at the time. In August 1994, audio files were added, also sent by FTP and Gopher.

In November 2000, VOA launched the website VOANews.com. From the time of the Iraq War in 2003, the English language site attracted new readership during important news events or crises. During the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic in March and April 2020, traffic increased by 94%. In its 20th year, the VOANews.com site attracted an average of 2.6 million unique visitors per month.

Today, VOANews.com is VOA’s English-language site from which user can navigate to anyone of VOA’s 47 language sites. It offers traditional text and photo content, as well as content on demand and live-streamed, providing the user with a multi-media experience.

Up until 2013, VOA continued to turn down any requests from the US public for VOA content and did not promote the fact that VOA was on the internet, viewable by all. This changed when the President signed into law, the Smith-Mundt Modernization Act in January 2013, which would become effective 6 months later on July 2, 2013. Now American citizens would be free to not only view programming on VOA’s many language service websites and mobile platforms, but are able to request VOA programming for re-broadcast to audiences in the United States. VOA is no longer restricted by national borders. For the first time since 1948, VOA and the U.S. international broadcasters were able to provide content on demand to American citizens.

Since the Smith-Mundt Modernization Act of 2012 much has changed at VOA. The Greek language service, one of the oldest at VOA, was shut down in 2014 in response to rising levels of freedom of press and speech in that country. Three new services - Bambara, Lingala and Rohingya – were added to reach the growing number of speakers of these languages – many of them refugees - in Central Africa and Southeast Asia. In addition, VOA increased its broadcasts to Russia and Iran by launching two 24/7 broadcast news networks: Current Time (Russian) and VOA365 (Persian). Voice of America established a press freedom beat in 2019, covering the status of a free press and journalists’ ability to cover news in the nations where VOA broadcasts.

The Voice of America is a multi-media international broadcaster providing products in 47 languages on multiple platforms. VOA’s audience accesses programming content on radio, television, the Internet, social media, and through more than 2,200 radio and television stations around the world that receive VOA programming by satellite. On a weekly basis, more than 275 million people count on VOA for news and information about their world.

Moving forward, VOA will continue to examine new technologies and digital platforms and refine its programming to reflect the needs of its listeners. One goal remains, however, for the hundreds of professionals who make up the Voice of America--to deliver comprehensive, timely truthful information. The VOA will continue to broadcast the sounds of freedom and serve as a beacon of hope for its audience around the world.

Bibliograafia

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Borra Rajan. "The Problem of Jamming in International Broadcasting." Journal of Broadcasting II, no. 4 (Fall 1967): 355-368.

Browne, Donald R. "The Voice of America Policies and Problems." (Journalism Monographs, no. 43), Lexington, KY, Association for Education in Journalism, 1976.

Carlson, Richard W. "No More Static." Policy Review (Winter 1988): 80-83.

Chancellor John. "The Intimate Voice.'" Foreign Service Journal (February 1967): 19-22.

Coffey, Fred A. "Voice of America: A Viable Communications Instrument of Foreign Policy and National Security?" Research Paper, National War College, 1977.

Elliott, Kim A. "Too Many Voices of America." Foreign Policy (Winter 1989/90): 113-131.

Fitzgerald, Merni Ingrassia. The Voice of America. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1987.

Grey, Robin (pseud.). "Inside the Voice of America." Columbia Journalism Review, 21 (May/June 1982): 23-30.

Handlery, G. "Propaganda and Information: The Case of U.S. Broadcasts to Eastern Europe." East European Quarterly, 8 (January 1975): 391-412.

Heil, Alan. Voice of America: A History. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.

Houseman, John. Front and Center. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1979.

Inkeles, Alex. "The Soviet Characterization of the Voice of America." Columbia Journal of International Affairs, 4, no. 1 (Winter 1950): 44-55.

Jurey, Philomena. A Basement Seat to History. Washington, .D.C.: Linus Press, 1995.

Kelly, Sean. "The VOA Correspondent: Journalist or Diplomat?" Foreign Service Journal, 44 (April 1978): 13-15, 39-41.

Kern, Chris. “The Voice of America: First on the Internet.” How the Voice of America became the first broadcasting network in the world to offer continuously-updated news on the public Internet (http://www.chriskern.net/history/voaFirstOnTheInternet.html)

Kretzmann, Edwin M. J. "McCarthy and the Voice of America." Foreign Service Journal, 44 (February 1967): 26-27, 44-49.

Matlack, Carol. "America's Voice." Government Executive, 23, no. 7 (July 1991): 10-11, 13.

McKenna, Paul R. "Vagabond Able." ("Vagabond Able" was the S.S. Courier a Coast Guard cutter stationed in Rhodes, Greece from 1952-1964, as a floating VOA radio station. It transmitted programs in sixteen languages to the Middle East and behind the Iron Curtain.) Naval History (Spring 1991): 25-29.

Piresein, Robert William. "An International Radio History. the VOA." Foreign Service Journal, 44 (February 1967) 23-25 50.

Piresein, Robert William. The Voice of America: a History of the International Broadcasting Activities of the United States Government 1940-1962. (Originally presented as the author's thesis, Northeastern University, 1970.) New York: Arno Press, 1979.

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Shulman, Holly C. "John Houseman and the Voice of America: American Foreign Propaganda on the Air." American Studies (1988): 23-40.

Shulman, Holly C. The Voice of America: Propaganda and Democracy: 1942-1945. Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1990.

Shulman, Holly Cowan. The Voice of America: Propaganda and Democracy 1941-1945. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1990.

Solzehitsyn, Aleksandr. "The Soft Voice of America." National Review (April 30, 1982): 477-481.

"Voice of America at the Crossroads: A Panel Discussion of the Appropriate Role of the VOA." Panel Proceedings. Washington, D.C., Media Institute (1982): 70.

Washburn, Philo C. "Voice of America and Radio Moscow Newscasts to the Third World." Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 32, no. 2 (Spring 1988): 197-218.


Today in history: The Voice of America began broadcasting in Russian to the Soviet Union.

On Feb. 17, 1947, the Voice of America began broadcasting in Russian to the Soviet Union.

In 1815, the United States and Britain exchanged the instruments of ratification for the Treaty of Ghent, ending the War of 1812.

In 1863, the International Red Cross was founded in Geneva.

In 1897, the forerunner of the National PTA, the National Congress of Mothers, convened its first meeting in Washington.

In 1913, the Armory Show, a landmark modern art exhibit, opened in New York City.

In 1925, the first issue of The New Yorker magazine (bearing the cover date of Feb. 21) was published.

In 1933, Newsweek magazine was first published under the title "News-Week."

In 1944, during World War II, U.S. forces invaded Eniwetok Atoll, encountering little initial resistance from Imperial Japanese troops. (The Americans secured the atoll less than a week later.)

In 1959, the United States launched Vanguard 2, a satellite which carried meteorological equipment.

In 1964, the Supreme Court, in Wesberry v. Sanders, ruled that congressional districts within each state had to be roughly equal in population.

In 1972, President Richard M. Nixon departed the White House with his wife, Pat, on a historic trip to China.

In 1986, Johnson & Johnson announced it would no longer sell over-the-counter medications in capsule form, following the death of a woman who had taken a cyanide-laced Tylenol capsule.

In 1996, world chess champion Garry Kasparov beat IBM supercomputer "Deep Blue," winning a six-game match in Philadelphia (however, Kasparov lost to Deep Blue in a rematch in 1997).


Voice of America begins broadcasts to Russia - HISTORY

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    Outlook for U.S. Stocks?

    June 22, 2021
    Hosted by Jay Taylor

    Guest Information

    Episode Description

    Dr. Peter Treadway, Michael Oliver and Corwin Coe return as guests. On May 5, Peter opined that “The outlook for U.S. stocks has turned negative.” That article focused on the costs of green energy being imposed on Americans by far left politicians. But Peter who is focused on global markets will most certainly have some views on the Asian markets, which he is very much involved with from his part time perch in Hong Kong. Specifically, I want to ask him about his views on the worsening of Chinese-US relations now that a more antagonistic Trump administration is no longer in charge. Michael has not hidden the fact that he too thinks the bullish days for stocks are numbered. He will provide his latest views on all the markets of great importance to our listeners and Corwin Coe will provide us with an update on the latest progress being made on Sitka Gold’s gold exploration projects in Arizona, Nevada and the Yukon.

    Turning Hard Times into Good Times

    Tuesday at 12 Noon Pacific Time on VoiceAmerica Business Channel

    Jay Taylor’s show will explain the real underlying causes for plunging stock prices, plunging home prices and growing unemployment. By correctly diagnosing the cause of America’s economic decline, rather than listening to excuses from Wall Street and Washington, Jay will offer winning investment ideas to protect and increase wealth.

    Topics to be discussed will include the cause of the decline of: our monetary system and our economy, the housing markets, the equity markets, and commodities, Why gold and silver are rising in value and how investors can profit from the direction of these markets through specific stocks, ETF’s and precious metals will also be discussed. Turning Hard Times into Good Times is broadcast live every Tuesday at 12 Noon Pacific Time on the VoiceAmerica Business Channel.

    Jay Taylor

    Jay Taylor has been able to more than double his newsletter’s model portfolio from 2000 to the present even as the S&P 500 was in the process of losing 50% of its value!

    The insights provided to Jay came from a history professor in 1967 who advised Jay that when countries go off a gold or silver standard, hard economic times are sure to follow because nations begin to think they do not need to work hard and save to enjoy a better life. Indeed there is no free lunch and a gold standard reminds people of that every day.

    Jay watched his professor’s prophetic words come true when in 1971, President Nixon completely detached the dollar from gold. Not surprising to Jay, the price of gold skyrocketed in the late 1970s as inflation wiped out vast amounts of wealth from average Americans. To protect his own wealth Jay began to invest in gold and gold mining shares and in 1981 he began sharing his success and insights in his newsletter. In 1981 Jay began writing a subscription newsletter that has earned his subscribers countless thousands of dollars over the years.

    Jay’s insights as to the real cause of our problems has enabled him to find investment strategies that work. Diagnose a problem correctly and you have a chance for success. Diagnose a problem incorrectly as the establishment does and you are sure to fail.


    Ameerika hääl

    Voice of America provides trusted and objective news and information in 47 languages to a measured weekly audience of more than 278 million people around the world. For over 75 years, VOA journalists have told American stories and supplied content that many people cannot get locally: objective news and information about the US, their specific region and the world. VOA uses the devices and platforms target markets use to connect audiences on five continents with the people, thoughts and institutions that make America unique.

    VOA uses digital, web and mobile media to engage viewers, listeners, users, and friends. Radio and television broadcast to approximately 3,000 affiliates and satellite transmissions reach countries where free speech is banned or where civil society is under threat. VOA’s four mobile apps have registered more than 1 million downloads and cater to users on all major mobile platforms. With the largest audience of all U.S. international media, VOA continues to be a beacon of hope for underserved audiences who yearn for information about freedom of expression, civil society, and change.

    Auhinnad

    VOA wins Clarion Award for Cambodia Adrift

    VOA’s Khmer language service won in the online journalism-special news section category for its digital special report Cambodia Adrift, which covered the run-up to the 2018 elections in that country.

    VOA documentary ‘Displaced’ wins Clarion Awards

    The Voice of America won a Clarion award in the television documentary program – national category for its documentary Displaced.

    VOA’s documentary Displaced receives Gabriel Award

    The Voice of America received a Gabriel Award for its film Displaced, which documents the experiences of the Rohingya Muslim refugees currently living in the Kutupalong camp in Bangladesh.


    Holding Russia Accountable

    The United States is holding Russia to account for actions taken against U.S. sovereignty and interests.

    Holding Russia Accountable

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    The United States is holding Russia to account for actions taken against U.S. sovereignty and interests, in particular for attempts to interfere in the 2020 American presidential election and for cyber intrusions targeting federal agencies and U.S. companies.

    The United States is imposing costs on Russia through a variety of measures. Among them, the Treasury Department sanctioned six Russian technology companies that provided support to the Russian Intelligence Services’ cyber efforts. The U.S. government publicly named the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service, known as the SVR, as the perpetrator of the cyber espionage campaign that exploited the SolarWinds Orion platform and other information technology infrastructures. That intrusion gave the SVR the ability to spy on or potentially disrupt more than 16,000 computer systems worldwide.

    The Treasury Department also sanctioned 32 entities and individuals carrying out Russian government-directed attempts to interfere in the 2020 U.S. presidential election, and other acts of disinformation. In addition, the Treasury Department issued a directive that prohibits U.S. banks from new purchases of ruble or non-ruble denominated bonds from Russia’s central bank, Finance Ministry or national wealth fund after June 14, 2021.

    Furthermore, the State Department announced that it is expelling 10 officials from the Russian diplomatic mission in Washington, D.C., some of whom are representatives of Russian intelligence services.

    President Joe Biden called the U.S. response to the malign actions of the Russian government “measured and proportionate.”

    “The United States is not looking to kick off a cycle of escalation and conflict with Russia. We want a stable, predictable relationship… Throughout our long history of competition, our two countries have been able to find ways to manage tensions and to keep them from escalating out of control.”

    President Biden noted how at the beginning of his administration the United States and Russia worked together to quickly extend the new START Treaty, which helps maintain nuclear stability between the two countries. He announced that in a recent phone conversation with President Putin he proposed a summit in Europe between the two leaders this summer so they can personally work toward a more effective relationship.

    “Now is the time to de-escalate. The way forward is through thoughtful dialogue and a diplomatic process.”

    “Where it is in the interest of the United States to work with Russia, we should and will,” said President Biden. “Where Russia seeks to violate the interests of the United States, we will respond.”


    Join Russia and USA by Rail Tunnels under the Bering Strait?

    Russia&rsquos Urals oil has been over $100 a barrel for a year now.
    The country&rsquos budgets are balanced. Debt is low. Savings are piling up. Russians are getting their pre-recession mojo back.
    On the consumer end, sales of foreign cars made in Russia jumped 90 percent during the first quarter of 2012 over last year.
    In the Kremlin, leaders are thinking big again.
    In rapid succession, the government leaked a plan to create a &ldquosuper agency&rdquo to develop the Russian Far East President-elect Vladimir Putin vowed to spend $17 billion a year for new and improved railroads, and Vladimir Yakunin, president of Russian Railways, promoted a think big plan &mdash a rail and tunnel link connecting Russia and the United States.
    &ldquoIt is not a dream,&rdquo Yakunin, a close ally of Mr. Putin, told reporters last week. &ldquoI am convinced that Russia needs the development of areas of the Far East, Kamchatka. I think that the decision to build must be made within the next three-five years.&rdquo
    Next year, Russia&rsquos railroad czar will open one big leg on the trip toward the Bering Strait &ndash an 800 kilometer rail line to Yakutsk, capital of Sakha Republic, a mineral rich area larger than Argentina.

    Moscow-born Fyodor Soloview lives in Anchorage, Alaska, where he lobbies for uniting his two homelands, Russia and the United States, with rail tunnels under the Bering Strait. Photo: Soloview

    But the 270,000 residents of Yakutsk do not want to live at the dead end of a spur line. They dream of five kilometer long freight trains rolling past their city, carrying Chinese goods to North America, and North American coal and manufactured products to Russia and China.

    From their city, 450 kilometers south of the Arctic Circle, passenger tickets could be sold west to London, and east to New York.

    With the West&rsquos swelling population of aging affluent retirees, what better gift for Mom and Dad than a one-month train trip, rolling across the International Dateline, traveling by rail three quarters of the way around the world? A TransBering rail voyage would make the TransSiberian and the TransCanada look like short hops.
    To push thinking along, Yakutsk hosted a trans Bering rail conference last August. Engineers showed charts indicating that the tunnels under the Bering Strait would be 103 kilometers long, about twice the length of the tunnel under the English Channel. Unlike Europe&rsquos &ldquoChunnel,&rdquo there are two islands along the Bering route &ndash geographical factors that would ease construction and allow for ventilation and emergency access.

    For now, the only trains in Alaska run from Seward on the coast 760 kilometers into the interior, carrying tourists to Denali National Park and freight to two military bases. Photo: Fyodor Soloview

    A trans Bering rail link was first seriously proposed by Czar Nicholas II in 1905. One century later, with the rise of China and the explosion of Asian manufacturing, some Russian economists believe that the day is near when a rail link to North America up would be economically viable.
    The current price tag for the missing 10,000 kilometers, tunnel included: $100 billion. Freight fees are estimated at $11 billion a year.
    Russian Railways estimates that a Bering Strait tunnel could eventually handle 3 percent of the world&rsquos freight cargo. Yakunin says that China is interested in the project. At a railway meeting in Moscow Thursday, Mr. Putin said that freight traffic on a main Siberian line, the Baikal-Amur Mainline, is expected to nearly triple by 2020.

    To critics who worry about harsh winter weather, Russian Railways notes that since 1915, the company has been running passenger and freight trains year round to Murmansk, located 300 miles north of the Arctic Circle. The proposed route for a tunnel under the Bering Strait would pass 50 kilometers south of the Arctic Circle.

    Trans Bering rail promoters envisage building feeder lines to connect 'stranded' mineral deposits and to allow shipment of freight between North American and Russia, China, Japan and the Korean peninsula. Map: InterBering

    For a tunnel linking two continents, support has to be generated on the North American side. In Alaska, Fyodor Soloview, a native of Moscow, recently formed InterBering, a private group to lobby for rail construction to the Bering Strait.
    &ldquoWe can ship cargo between two the continents by rail,&rdquo Soloview said by telephone Thursday from his office in Anchorage. &ldquoOnce the Bering tunnel is built, it will convert the entire world to different thinking.&rdquo
    Yakunin estimates that the Russian side of a trans Bering railroad would take 10 to 15 years to build. That could fit into the political calendar of his friend Mr. Putin. On May 7, Mr. Putin will be inaugurated for a new six year term. He has left open the possibility of running in 2018 for another six year term.
    So Russian Railways may have the political cover for another 12 years.
    The question is whether oil prices will stay high enough to build a tunnel linking America and Asia.
    If so, Washington&rsquos diplomatic reset with Moscow could be welded in steel.

    To reconnect Asia and North America -- after a 15,000-year separation -- engineers would dig two 103-kilometer long tunnels, each about twice as long as the rail tunnels opened under the English Channel in 1994. Diagrams: Victor Razbegin

    On the North American side, almost 5,000 kilometer to track would have to be laid to connect with the existing North American freight network: east from the Bering Strait to Fairbanks, Alaska, and then southeast to Fort Nelson, British Columbia, Canada. Map: InterBering


    Inside the U.S. effort to combat Russian misinformation

    Not the White House, the State Department or the CIA. The recordings were published by a U.S.-government-funded website called Polygraph.info, whose reporter says she got them from a source close to the Kremlin.

    Polygraph is a relatively new fact-checking arm of an obscure, diminutive media effort by the U.S. to highlight Russian misdeeds and counter Russian propaganda.

    It's an anomaly in the Trump administration — perhaps the only part of the U.S. government whose job is to regularly punch back against what experts say is a stream of Russian disinformation aimed at America and the West.

    "At the end of the day, the Russians are engaging in information warfare — they're telling lies," said John Lansing, a former television executive who oversees the effort. "And we're confronting them toe-to-toe with fact-based, truthful, professional journalism."

    Russia's proficiency at information war has been on display in the wake of the U.S.-led military strike Friday night in Syria. Russia called the strikes illegal and said the chemical weapons attacks that prompted them were staged. To get that message out, there was a 2000 percent spike in activity in the hours since the strike by fake Russian propaganda accounts on social media, a Pentagon spokeswoman said Saturday. A website that tracks a slice of those accounts, Hamilton 68, found that they were pumping out the Russian government narrative in English.

    They're "eating our lunch"

    The U.S. is ill-equipped to respond. Polygraph, part of the tiny corner of the government that's trying, has a staff of five that doesn't usually work on the weekends.

    "We focus mostly on Russia right now because there is a large flow of disinformation that's coming from Russia," said Jim Fry, a former Dallas television reporter who runs Polygraph from Washington.

    Polygraph is a joint venture of the Voice of America and Radio Liberty, which are funded by — but independent of — the U.S. government. They fall under the umbrella of the Broadcasting Board of Governors, whose mission is to promote freedom and democracy and "tell America's story" around the world. But they are walled off, editorially, from the administration in power.

    "The law protects us from interference by U.S. government officials," said Tom Kent, who spent 44 years at The Associated Press before becoming president of Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe. "They can't tell us what to broadcast."

    During the Cold War, the VOA and Radio Liberty sought to counter communist propaganda and funnel information to the news-starved citizenry behind the Iron Curtain.

    Those muscles — and budgets — have long since atrophied. But in recent years, there have been growing calls for a new twist on that old mission.

    When Lansing became CEO of the Broadcasting Board of Governors in 2015, he said he was confronted on Capitol Hill and throughout the government with a single question:

    "Why are the Russians eating our lunch in terms of information warfare?"

    People were talking mainly about RT, the former Russia Today, which spends hundreds of millions of dollars a year on an English language broadcast and web platform that regularly skewers American and the West. The U.S. government has labeled RT a propaganda operation.

    The State Department came under criticism earlier this year when news reports highlighted its failure to spend $120 million that had been allocated to push back on Russian propaganda abroad.

    Lost in that conversation was the fact that one month into the Trump Administration, Lansing and his team launched Current Time America, a 24-hour Russian-language broadcasting and web platform. The budget was $20 million — around one-tenth the size of RT's budget, Lansing says. But one year later, Current Time America is available on TV screens in 30 countries, and officials counted 400 million view views on social media last year.

    Still, U.S. information efforts are minuscule compared to the Russian campaign. While Current Time America is available in Russia, the Russian government makes it difficult to find — keeping it off cable systems and requiring special tuning for satellite reception.

    The broadcasting board's total budget this year is about $660 million dollars, about a third of what was spent in 1991, adjusted for inflation.

    "I think we should be investing more," Lansing said.

    "There are facts"

    The Russian government labels the entire U.S.-funded journalism operation "propaganda" that is "part of a broader, wide-reaching American system of pressure on our country."

    Irina van Dusen, who heads the effort as chief of Voice of America's Russian-language programming, knows what propaganda looks like. She grew up in the Soviet Union, listening to the VOA on an illegal short wave radio for scraps of accurate reporting.

    She got her journalism degree in Moscow, but decided that if she wanted to practice real journalism, she would have to move to the West.

    During the Cold War, she says, the VOA was trying to break through jamming and censorship. Now there has been a proliferation of Russian TV and web channels that put out a cacophony of news, nearly all of it favorable to Vladimir Putin. The task in 2018 is trying to break through a fog of disinformation.

    The prevailing view in Russia, she said, is that "There is no truth. There is only different versions, different narratives. … We stand by the fact that there is truth. And there are facts."

    From a TV studio near not far from where special counsel Robert Mueller comes to work each day, Current Time America covers Washington, offering live broadcasts of Congressional hearings with simultaneous translations.

    "People can listen, see how it's done, how policies are made, what questions asked, what facts are being brought up," she said.

    The channel also covers Russia, to "provide Russian speaking audiences with a true portrait of the society, you know? As opposed to state-run Russian television that — interprets everything that is done in the world … as some kind of a United States manipulation and United States meddling in world affairs."

    Polygraph.info, and its Russian-language counterpart, Factograph, try to be slightly edgier than a traditional news operation.

    "What our reporters do every day is they begin the day looking at Russian media," said Fry. "Looking at what's coming out of Russia. And then we decide whether there's something to fact check. Usually, almost every day, there's more to fact check than we could possibly do with our staff."

    The site is modeled after other media fact check efforts, including Politifact and factcheck.org. It highlights a claim, say, by Putin or another Russian official, and brands it for veracity, with labels like "Partially True, "False" or "Misleading."

    In March, the site fact-checked a Putin documentary that alleged the Russian leader had always believed that the Ukrainian territory of Crimea was part of Russia. It highlighted remarks by Putin in 2008 in which he said something very different: "Crimea is absolutely not a disputed territory." Six years later, Putin seized Crimea from Ukraine, to international condemnation.

    Polygraph also challenged Russia's denial that the nerve agent used to poison a former spy in the U.K. was made only in Russia, and its assertion that no chemical attack took place in Syria.

    Polygraph reporters are not afraid to endorse criticism of the U.S. when it's accurate. When Russian foreign minister Sergei Lavrov criticized a list of Russian oligarchs that the Treasury Department admitted it cribbed from Forbes magazine, Polygraph labeled his comments, "Partially True."


    United States: Attacks on Voice of America Undermine Press Freedom

    The Trump administration's blacklisting of Voice of America journalists risks press freedom at home and abroad.

    In response to recent actions taken by the Trump administration to undercut the Voice of America (VOA), a US global broadcast news agency, Freedom House issued the following statement:

    “VOA is one of the largest and most trusted independent news agencies in the world,” said Michael J. Abramowitz, president of Freedom House. “Efforts to blacklist VOA journalists from interview requests to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are an unprecedented attack on press freedom in the United States.”

    “VOA is often one of the few critical and independent voices available in countries without a free press, such as Russia and China. Restrictions on VOA at home will be noted by illiberal leaders abroad, who may follow the example of the United States and crack down on VOA or other independent outlets in their countries, limiting access to essential information including about the COVID-19 pandemic. The United States should be an exemplar, not a detractor, of press freedom around the world.”

    “The administration must respect and commit to maintaining the firewall that prohibits political interference in VOA’s independent reporting.”

    On June 14, VOA reported on documents released under a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request by the Knight First Amendment Institute that revealed instructions to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention staff to ignore media requests from VOA journalists. As justification, the instructions referenced an April 10 statement from the White House that falsely accused VOA of using taxpayer money to promote foreign propaganda.

    Also in April, President Trump verbally attacked VOA, calling its coverage of the United States “disgusting.” VOA director Amanda Bennett and deputy director Sandy Sugawara resigned from their positions on June 15.

    Funded by the US government, VOA was founded in 1942 to report on World War II and has since worked to provide independent and objective news in more than 40 languages to audiences in approximately 100 countries around the world. VOA’s independence is protected under the 1994 US International Broadcast Act, which guarantees a firewall that prohibits government interference in its work.


    Vaata videot: ameerika hääl