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Föderaalne Juurdlusbüroo (FBI) on föderaalselt rahastatav luureagentuur ja on USA jaoks uurimisressursside peamine allikas. Selle moto on “Fidelity, Bravery, Integrity”. Selle peakorter asub Washingtonis.Büroo sünd1908. aastal sündis büroo eriagentide jõuna, mille lõi peaprokurör Charles Bonaparte Theodore Roosevelti eesistumise ajal. Esialgu värbas juurdlusbüroo valdavalt mehi, kellel oli varasem õiguskaitsealane kogemus. Föderaalsed kuriteod ei olnud büroo loomise ajal riigis suur probleem. Kõige sagedasemad büroo tähelepanu pälvinud rikkumised hõlmasid riiklikke panganduspettusi, maapettusi, mitmesuguseid orjastamise vorme ja väljapressimist.Juunis 1910 sai Manni ("valge orja") seadus büroo jaoks oluliseks töövahendiks. Uurimisbüroo kasutas Manni seadust ka Louisiana Ku Klux Klani "Imperial Kleagle" kohtu ette toomiseks. 1912. aastal sai büroo uueks juhiks endine erieksamineerija Bruce Bielaski. Aastatel 1912–1914 töötas juurdlusbüroos umbes 300 eri agenti, kes olid määratud erinevatele föderaalsetele kuritegudele, ning üle 300 muu kontoritöötaja, kes pakkusid tuge ja logistikat väliagendid. Kuigi need eelpostid paigutati peamiselt suurematesse linnadesse, ilmnes peagi nõudlus kohaloleku järele Mehhiko piiri lähedal ja sundis eelposte paigutama väiksematesse piirilinnadesse, et uurida erinevaid ebaseadusliku salakaubaveo juhtumeid. Aastatel 1921–1933 oli büroo sageli pettunud avalikkusega vastuolus. "Seadusetute aastate" ajal olid paljud ameeriklased keelu kehtestamisele vastu, teised aga tegelesid äärmuspoliitikaga. Röövretked (alkoholi serveerivad ööklubid) ja peibutuskõnede kasutamine tõid keelustamise ajal kaasa palju saapaid (alkoholi salakaubavedajaid).Sellise seadusetuse juured olid organiseeritud kuritegevuses ja büroo tegeles selle väljajuurimisega sügavalt. Selliste kurjategijate tabamine nagu "kuulipilduja" Kelly, pangaröövel John Dillinger ja "Baby Face" Nelson muutusid kiireloomulisteks prioriteetideks ning büroo pälvis nende pättide mahavõtmisel avalikkuse lugupidamise.Hooveri aastad10. mail 1924 sai büroo direktoriks 26-aastane J. Edgar Hoover. Ta asutas spetsiaalse agentide koolitusakadeemia, mille minimaalne vanus oli 25–35 aastat, ja kahekümnendate aastate lõpuks oli ta sulanud kõigi kohalike kontorite koordineerimise sõrmejälgede kaarte sisaldavate tsentraliseeritud failidega. avas Virginia Quanticos asuvas FBI akadeemias FBI teadusliku kuritegevuse avastamise laboratooriumi (aka Büroo koolitab ka osariigi ja kohalikke kuritegevuse laboratooriume ning õiguskaitseasutusi üle kogu riigi).Alates neljakümnendatest tegeles büroo spionaažijuhtumitega USA sihtmärkides FBI agentide poolt kesklinna. FBI kasutas 1950. aastatel palju selliseid vastuluureprogramme. ¹ Alates 1949. aastast on FBI kümne tagaotsitava tagaotsitava nimekiri agentide käsutuses, et teha koostööd teiste õiguskaitseorganite ja üldsusega, et aidata tabada ohtlikke põgenikke. FBI moodustas COINTELPRO (vastuluureteenistuste akronüüm), et "neutraliseerida" USA poliitilisi dissidente aastatel 1956–1971. Kui COINTELPRO 1971. aastal eksponeeriti, lõpetas büroo oma tegevuse. Oma mitme aastakümne jooksul direktorina kulutas Hoover kahjuks palju agentuuri ressurssidest, mis uurivad süütuid sotsialiste ja muid assotsieerunud poliitilisi aktiviste - kogudes sageli tohutuid toimikuid üksikisikute kohta. Sellised tähelepanuväärsed ameeriklased nagu Eleanor Roosevelt, kellel oli kõige paksem isiklik toimik, ja Martin Luther King juunior, olid režissööri kontrolli objektid.Pärast HooveritOrganiseeritud kuritegevus tundis jätkuvalt FBI halastamatut survet. Endine autojuht ja Al Capone'i järeltulija Frank “The Enforcer” Nitti palgatud tapja, arvati, et Giancana oli üks neist gangsteritest, kelle CIA värbas Kuuba presidendi Fidel Castro tapmiseks. Tänu oma kõrgetasemelisele elustiilile ja FBI intensiivsele jälgimisele kukutas Giancana maffia troonilt ja mõrvati hiljem oma Illinoisi kodus 1975. aasta juunis pärast tagasipöördumist Mehhikost. Teiste FBI juurdluste hulk 1970ndatel ja 1980ndatel nüristas mõnevõrra maffia võimu. 1993. aastal 51-päevase vaheaja taga väljaspool Waco, Texast, üritasid FBI, ATF (alkoholi, tubaka ja tulirelvade büroo) ja Texas Rangers ebaõnnestunult filiaali Davididlaste päästmiseks, keda arvati nende juhi David Koreshi pantvangis olevat, nende ühenduses nimega Karmeli mägi. FBI palkas oma pantvangipääste meeskonna (HRT) ja vastutava eriagendi (SAC) San Antonio büroost, et viia Koreshile vastu terrorismivastane taktika. peaprokurör Janet Reno kiitis heaks gaasi klorobensülideen -malononitriil (CS) kasutamise ühendi kaitsjate neutraliseerimiseks. Hiljem süüdistati ATF -i ja FBI -d liigses jõus, mis algas Koreshi „relvaäri” uurimisega ning lõppes lõõmava tulekahju ja enamiku järgijate surmaga ühenduses. FBI on silmitsi pöördemantlitega. Väidetava spiooni paljastas väidetavalt mutt-jahi meeskond. 24. veebruaril 1994 pidas FBI Arlingtonis, Virginias kinni 31-aastase luure keskagentuuri (CIA) veterani Aldrich Amesi spionaažisüüdistuste tõttu. Ames oli venelaste eest luuranud alates 1985. aastast. 21. sajand ja 11. septembri 2001. aasta sündmused tõid esile teise Ameerikasse suunatud vägivallaliigi ning FBI on pidanud selliste ohtude käsitlemiseks kohandama ja muutma oma terrorismivastaseid meetodeid. . George W. Bushi administratsioonilt pärinev uus seadus võimaldab eriagentidel jälgida muude sätete kõrval ka võimalikke terrorirühmi või -tegevusi pealtkuulamise ja internetitegevuse kaudu.Lavastajad alates HooveristFBI -l on alates Hooveri surmast 1973. aastal olnud palju direktoreid, millest igaüks annab oma panuse büroosse. Büroot moderniseerides piiras Kelley ka meelevaldseid uurimisi ning hakkas lubama rohkem naisi ja vähemusi eriagentide ridadesse.Kelley juhatas juhatust kuni 1978. aastani, mil William H. Sessions rakendas ka poliitikat naiste ja vähemuste arvu suurendamiseks büroos. 1993. aastal lükkas president Bill Clinton Sessiooni tagasi eetilise käitumise süüdistuste tõttu. Mueller, III.JäreldusAastate jooksul on Föderaalne Juurdlusbüroo osalenud paljude Ameerika ajaloo kõige reeturlikumate kurjategijate uurimises ja tabamises. FBI on jätkuvalt arenev föderaalbüroo, millel on kõigi föderaalsete õiguskaitseorganite kõige laiemad volitused ja jurisdiktsioon.


¹ Usaldusväärne isik, kes töötab salastatud teabega ametikohal ja kelle on palganud välisriigi spionaažiagentuur.
² Vt Julius ja Ethel Rosenberg.


Vault

Vault on meie uus FOIA raamatukogu, mis sisaldab 6700 dokumenti ja muud meediat, mis on skannitud paberilt digitaalsetesse koopiatesse, nii et saate neid mugavalt oma kodus või kontoris lugeda.

Siia on lisatud palju uusi FBI faile, mis on avalikkusele avaldatud, kuid pole sellele veebisaidile kunagi lisatud, kümneid varem meie saidile postitatud kirjeid, mis on eemaldatud taotlustena meie eelmisest FOIA raamatukogust vähenenud failidena, ja uusi, varem avaldamata faile.

Vault sisaldab teie mugavuse huvides mitmeid uusi tööriistu ja ressursse:

  • Teemade otsimine: Saate sirvida või otsida konkreetseid teemasid või isikuid (nt Al Capone või Marilyn Monroe), vaadates meie tähestikulist loendit, kasutades selle saidi paremas ülanurgas olevat otsingutööriista või kontrollides erinevaid kategooriate loendeid, mida leiate menüü selle lehe paremas servas. Otsingutulemustes klõpsake kausta, et näha kõiki konkreetse teema faile.
  • Võtmesõnade otsimine: Tänu meie väljatöötatud uuele tehnoloogiale saate nüüd otsida märksõnu või fraase sees mõned üksikud failid. Saate otsida kõigist meie elektroonilistest failidest, kasutades selle saidi paremas ülanurgas olevat otsingutööriista, või saate otsida märksõnu konkreetsest dokumendist, sisestades terminid faili paremas ülanurgas olevasse otsingukasti. see on avatud ja laaditud. Märkus: kuna paljud failid sisaldavad käsitsi kirjutatud märkmeid või ei ole vanuse tõttu alati optimaalses seisukorras, ei tööta see otsingufunktsioon alati ideaalselt.
  • Failide vaatamine: Kasutame nüüd avatud lähtekoodiga veebidokumentide vaaturit, nii et te ei vaja enam meie dokumentide vaatamiseks oma failitarkvara. Kui klõpsate failil, laaditakse see lugejasse, mis võimaldab teil vaadata ühte või kahte lehte korraga, otsida märksõnu, vähendada või suurendada teksti suurust, kasutada erinevaid kerimisfunktsioone ja palju muud. Paljudel juhtudel on parandatud ka üksikute failide kvaliteeti ja selgust.
  • Oleku värskendamise taotlemine: Kasutage meie uut tööriista Kontrollige oma FOI/PA taotluse olekut, et teha kindlaks, kus teie taotlus meie protsessis seisab. Olekuteavet uuendatakse kord nädalas. Märkus. Selle funktsiooni kasutamiseks vajate oma FOI/PA taotluse numbrit.

Pange tähele: varahoidlas olevate failide sisu hõlmab kõiki büroo ajaloo perioode ega kajasta alati FBI praeguseid seisukohti, poliitikat ja prioriteete.


Sisu

Michael Lee Platt (3. veebruar 1954 - 11. aprill 1986) ja William Russell Matix (25. juuni 1951 - 11. aprill 1986) kohtus USA sõjaväes Kentucky osariigis Fort Campbellis.

Matix teenis esmakordselt USA merejalaväes aastatel 1969-72, töötades kokana (MOS 3371) ohvitseride segaduses, teenides ülemeremaades Hawaiil ja Okinawal vastavalt aprillist 1970 kuni märtsini 1971 ja aprillist 1971 kuni märtsini 1972. Ta vabastati auväärselt 7. juulil 1972, saavutades seersandi auastme. Ta läks 10. augustil 1973 USA armeesse, teenides sõjaväepolitseis 101. õhudessantdivisjoni all Fort Campbellis, Kentuckys. Ta töötas sõjaväepolitseinikuna ja malevkonna juhi valvurina Post Stockade’is ning lõpuks patrulljuhendajana enne auväärset vabastamist 9. augustil 1976. [1]

Platt läks sõjaväkke 27. juunil 1972 jalaväelasena. Põhikoolitusel kandideeris Platt armee õhutõrjeõppesse ja astus seejärel Kentucky osariigis Fort Campbellis langevarjurite õhurünnakute kooli. Pärast hüppekooli lõpetamist määrati Platt sõjaväepolitsei üksusesse. Just selles üksuses ta kohtus ja teenis koos Matixiga. Siin kohtus ta ka oma esimese naise Regina Lyleniga. Ta vabastati auväärselt 1979. aastal. [1]

Mõlema mehe endised naised olid vägivaldsetes oludes surnud. [2] Matixi naine, pensionile jäänud USA armee spetsialist [3] [ vaja paremat allikat ] Patricia Buchanich ja naissoost töökaaslane Joyce McFadden pussitati surnuks 30. detsembril 1983 Ohio osariigis Columbuses asuvas Riverside'i metodistihaiglas, kus mõlemad naised töötasid. [4] Mõlemad leiti mõrvatuna haigla laborist. Nad olid köidetud ja kõri kinni lõigatud. [1] Matix ütles uurijatele, et kahtlustab, et Platt oli oma naisega suhelnud. Matix oli mõrvas kahtlustatav, kuid talle ei esitatud kunagi süüdistust. [5]

Pärast naise surma kolis Matix Platti õhutusel Floridasse ning nad asutasid haljastus- ja puude eemaldamise ettevõtte nimega "Yankee Clipper Tree Trimming Service". [6] 1985. aasta mais abiellus Matix Christy Lou Horne'iga, kes kolis kodust välja kaks kuud hiljem, kui Matix sai raevu pärast seda, kui sai teada, et on rase. Ta sünnitaks nende poja pärast Matixi surma. [7] [8]

21. detsembril 1984 leiti Platt'i naine Regina E. Lylen-Platt, kellega ta oli abiellunud üheksa aastat varem, 1975. aastal, surnuna ühest haavlipaugust suhu. Tema surm tunnistati enesetapuks. [9] Ta abiellus oma teise naise Brenda Horne'iga jaanuaris 1985. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ]

Enne kuritegude alustamist polnud Plattil ega Matixil karistusregistrit. [10] Platti tapmise ajal polnud tema naisel aimugi, et tema abikaasa ja tema sõber Matix olid relvastatud röövlid.

5. oktoobril 1985 mõrvasid Platt ja Matix 25-aastase Emilio Brieli, kui ta oli kiviauku pihta tulistanud. Paar varastas Brieli auto ja kasutas seda mitme röövi toimepanemiseks. [11] Brieli säilmed leiti 1986. aasta märtsis, kuid tuvastati alles mais. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ]

10. oktoober 1985, viis päeva pärast Brieli tapmist, üritasid Platt ja Matix röövida soomukit Wells Fargo, mis teenindas Winn-Dixie supermarketit. Pärast seda, kui ta oli käsu "külmutada", tulistas üks paarist haavlipüssiga valvurit jalga, teine ​​aga põgenenud sõidukist käsirelva ja õlarelvi. Kaks teist valvurit vastasid tulele, kuid ei Platt ega Matix haavata saanud. Raha röövimise eest ei võetud, kuid vigastatud valvur suri hiljem haavasse. Mõni nädal hiljem, 8. novembril 1985 röövisid nad Miamis asuva kutselise hoiupanga ja võtsid 41 469 dollarit kolmes Wells Fargo soomusautokompanii rahakotis, mis olid kohale toimetatud sel hommikul. [1]

Nad jätkasid oma rööve 10. jaanuaril 1986. aastal, rünnates Brinksi soomusautokompanii kullerit, kui ta avas oma veoki tagaukse Miami linnas Barnett Bankis. Rünnaku algatas üks neist, tulistades valvurit suure gabariidipüssiga selga. Mõlemad lähenesid haavatud valvurile ja tulistasid teda veel kaks korda sõjalise tüüpi .223 kaliibriga relvaga, mida tunnistajad kirjeldasid kui AR-15 või M-16 stiilis kiirpüssi. Hiljem põgenesid nad 54 000 dollariga Emilio Brielilt varastatud Chevrolet'is. Tsiviilisik järgis neid sündmuskohalt ja nägi pealt, kuidas nad valgele Ford F-150 pikapile üle läksid, kuid kaotasid seejärel kontakti. [1]: 30 Valvur elas tulistamise üle, kuid tema kehas oli üle 100 haavlipüssi. [12]

12. märtsil röövisid nad ja tulistasid Jose Collazot, kui ta sihtmärgiks tulistas Florida Evergladesi kiviauku, jättes ta surnuks ja varastades tema musta Chevrolet Monte Carlo. Collazo elas tulistamise üle ja kõndis abi saamiseks kolm miili. [13]

Nädal hiljem, 19. märtsil 1986 kell 9.30, röövisid nad Barnett Banki filiaali, kandes käes lühikest pommipüssi ja sõjaväe tüüpi õlirelva, võimalik, et Ruger Mini-14. See oli sama pank, kus nad paar kuud varem tulistasid ja röövisid soomusauto Brinks kullerit. 8 338 dollarit varastati, kahtlusalused põgenesid Collazo Monte Carlos. [1]: 31

Reedel, 11. aprillil 1986 kell 8.45 kogunes FBI agentide meeskond, keda juhtis eriagent Gordon McNeill Home Depo's, et algatada jooksev panus, otsides musta 1979. aasta Chevrolet Monte Carlot (Collazo varastatud auto). Agendid ei teadnud toona kahtlustatavate isikut. Nad tegutsesid eeldusel, et paar üritab hommikul röövi teha. Otsingutel osales kokku 14 FBI agenti 11 autos. Kaheksa neist FBI agentidest osalesid tulistamises ja saadeti järgmiselt: [1]

  • Järelevalve eriagent Gordon McNeill (20-aastane veteran) üksi oma autos
  • Eriagent Richard Manauzzi (15-aastane veteran) üksi oma autos
  • Eriagent Benjamin Grogan (25-aastane veteran) ja eriagent Jerry Dove (4-aastane veteran)
  • Eriagent Edmundo Mireles Jr koos eriagent John Hanloniga (23-aastane veteran)
  • Eriagent Gilbert Orrantia (4-aastane veteran) koos eriagent Ronald Risneriga (18-aastane veteran)

Umbes kell 9.30 märkasid agendid Grogan ja Dove kahtlustatavat sõidukit ning hakkasid sellele järgnema. Nendega ühinesid veel kaks panustamismeeskonna autot ja lõpuks üritati peatada kahtlusaluste liiklusseisak, kes sunniti teelt välja pärast kokkupõrget FBI agentide Grogan/Dove, agentide Hanlon/Mireles ja agent Manauzzi autodega. Need kokkupõrked saatsid kahtlustatava auto nina kõigepealt puusse 1220 Southwest 82nd Avenue 1220 maja ees asuvas väikeses parkimisalas, mis oli kinnitatud pargitud auto (reisija pool) ja Manauzzi auto vahele juhi poole. [1]

Sündmuskohal olnud kaheksast agendist oli kahel sõidukis Remington 870 haavlipüssi (McNeill ja Mireles), kolm olid relvastatud Smith & amp; Wesson Model 459 9 mm poolautomaatpüstolitega (Dove, Grogan ja Risner) ja ülejäänud (kuus) ) olid relvastatud Smith & amp; Wessoni revolvritega, kahel oli .357 Magnumit ja viiel oli .38 eripakkumist. Kahel agendil oli varukoopia .38 spetsiaalset revolvrit (Hanlon ja Risner) ja mõlemad kasutaksid neid mingil hetkel võitluse ajal. [1]

Esialgne kokkupõrge, mis sundis kahtlustatavad teelt kõrvale, tekitas agentidele ettenägematuid probleeme, kuna FBI sõidukid said kahjustusi raskemast vanemast autost, mida juhtis Matix. [14] Vahetult enne Monte Carlo rammimist oli Manauzzi välja võtnud teenistusrevolveri ja asetanud selle tulistamise ootuses istmele, [14] kuid kokkupõrkejõud avas tema ukse ja teadete kohaselt avas ta relv kas lendas uksest välja või visati põrandale. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ] Hanlon kaotas esialgse kokkupõrke ajal oma .357 Magnumi teenindusrevolveri, kuigi suutis endiselt võidelda oma Smith & amp Wesson Model 36 varurelvaga. Kokkupõrge lõi Grogani prillid maha ja spekuleeritakse, et tema nägemine oli nii halb, et ta ei näinud piisavalt selgelt, et olla efektiivne (väite vaidlustas FBI meditsiinidirektor, kes väitis, et Grogani nägemine polnud "nii halb"). Groganit peetakse relvavõitluse esimese tabamuse maandumiseks, haavates Matixit küünarvarre, kui ta Monte Carlost välja kippus, et Grogani ja Dove'i pihta tulistada. [7]

Manauzzi ei suutnud revolvrit taastada ning sai haavlilaskmise tagajärjel peas ja seljas haavata, arvatavasti Matixilt. McNeill tulistas üle Manauzzi auto kapoti, kuid sai Plattilt tagasitulekahjus haavata. Seejärel tulistas Platt oma vintpüssiga Mirelese poole, kes jooksis üle tänava võitlusega liituma. Mireles sai löögi vasakusse küünarvarre, tekitades raske haava. [14] Seejärel tõmbus Platt aknast tagasi, andes Matixile võimaluse tulistada. Kokkupõrkekahjustuste tõttu suutis Matix oma ukse avada ainult osaliselt ning tulistas Grogni ja Dove pihta ühe jahipüssiga, tabades nende sõidukit. Seejärel lasti Matix paremasse küünarvarre. [15] McNeill vastas tulele kuue lasuga revolvrist, tabades Matixi kahe lasuga peas ja kaelas. Ilmselt tabas Matix tabamustelt teadvuseta ja ei lasknud enam ühtegi lasku. [16] Seejärel tulistati McNeilli käest ning ta ei saanud oma haava ja vere tõttu revolvri kambrites uuesti laadida. [14]

Kui Platt sõitjapoolsest autoaknast välja ronis, tabas üks Dove 9 mm läbimõõdust paremat õlavarre ja tungis edasi rinnale, peatudes tolli südamest eemal. Lahkamisel leiti, et Plattil oli parem kops kokku vajunud ja tema rindkereõõnes oli 1,3 liitrit verd (hemotooraks), mis viitab parema kopsu põhi veresoonte kahjustusele. Tema paljudest tulistamishaavadest oli see haav esmane Plati surma põhjustaja. [17] Auto oli peatunud vastu pargitud sõidukit ja Platt pidi ronima üle selle sõiduki kapoti, Oldsmobile Cutlassi. Seda tehes tulistati teda teist ja kolmandat korda parema reie ja vasaku jalaga. Arvatakse, et lasud tulistas Dove. [18]

Platt asus Cutlassi kõrvalistuja eesmise poritiiva juurde. Ta tulistas 0,357 Magnumi revolvrit agentide Ronald Risneri ja Gilbert Orrantia pihta ning teda tulistati neljandat korda Hanloni, Dove'i ja Grogani pihta tulistades. Orrantia revolvrist tulistatud kuul tungis Platti paremasse küünarvarre, murdis raadiuse luu ja väljus küünarvarrest. See haav põhjustas Plattil revolvri kukkumise. [19] Hinnanguliselt tulistati Plattit veidi pärast seda viiendat korda, seekord Risneri poolt. Kuul tungis läbi Plati parema õlavarre, väljus kaenla alt ja sisenes torsosse, peatudes õlariba all. Haav ei olnud tõsine. [20]

Platt tulistas oma Ruger Mini-14-st ühe ringi Risneri ja Orrantia positsiooni, haavates Orrantiat vasakul õlal kuuli läbipääsust tekkinud šrapnelliga ja kaks lasku McNeillis. Üks voor tabas McNeilli kaela, mille tagajärjel ta kukkus kokku ja jättis ta mitmeks tunniks halvatuks. Seejärel asetas Platt ilmselt Mini-14 vastu vigastamata vasakut kätt vastu õlga. [21]

Dove'i 9 mm püstol muudeti töövõimetuks pärast seda, kui Platt kuuli tabas. Hanlon tulistas Platt'i pihta ja lasti uuesti laadimisel käest. Grogan ja Dove põlvitasid oma auto juhi kõrval. Mõlemad olid mures Dove'i relva tööle panemise pärast ega avastanud, et Platt nende vastu agressiivselt ründas. Platt ümardas nende auto tagaosa ja tappis Grogani lasuga rinnale, tulistas Hanloni kubemepiirkonda ja tappis seejärel Dove kahe lasuga pähe. Platt sisenes seejärel Grogan/Dove'i autosse, püüdes ilmselt sündmuskohalt põgeneda. [22] Kui Platt sisenes Grogani ja Dove'i autosse, tulistas Mireles, kes oskas kasutada ainult ühte kätt, esimese viiest padrunist oma pumppüssist, haavates Plattit mõlemas jalas. [14] Teadmata ajal oli Matix teadvusele tulnud ja ta ühines Plattiga autos, sisenedes kõrvalistuja uksest. Mireles fired four more rounds at Platt and Matix, but hit neither. [23]

Around this time, Metro-Dade police officers Rick Frye, Leonard Figueroa and Martin Heckman arrived. Heckman covered McNeill's paralyzed body with his own. [24] Frye assisted Hanlon. [25]

Platt's actions at this moment in the fight have been debated. A civilian witness described Platt leaving the car, walking almost 20 feet and firing at Mireles three times at close range. Mireles does not remember this happening. Officer Heckman does not remember Platt leaving the Grogan/Dove car. Risner and Orrantia, observing from the other side of the street, stated that they did not see Platt leave the car and fire at Mireles. [26] However, it is known for certain that Platt pulled Matix's Dan Wesson revolver at some point and fired three rounds. [21] [27]

Platt attempted to start the Grogan/Dove car. Mireles drew his .357 Magnum revolver, moved parallel to the street and then directly toward Platt and Matix. Mireles fired six rounds at the suspects. The first round missed, hitting the back of the front seat. The second hit the driver's side window post and fragmented, with one small piece hitting Platt in the scalp. The third hit Matix in the face, and fragmented in two, with neither piece causing a serious wound. The fourth hit Matix in the face next to his right eye socket, traveled downward through the facial bones into the neck, where it entered the spinal column and severed the spinal cord. The fifth hit Matix in the face, penetrated the jaw bone and neck and came to rest by the spinal column. [28] Mireles reached the driver's side door, extended his revolver through the window, and fired his sixth shot at Platt. The bullet penetrated Platt's chest and bruised the spinal cord, ending the gunfight. [29]

The shootout involved 10 people two suspects and eight FBI agents. Of the 10, only one, Special Agent Manauzzi, did not fire any shots (his firearm was thrown from the car in the initial collision), while only one, Special Agent Risner, was able to emerge from the battle without a wound. The incident lasted under five minutes yet approximately 145 shots were exchanged. [14] [30]

Toxicology tests showed that the abilities of Platt and Matix to fight through multiple traumatic gunshot wounds and continue to battle and attempt to escape were not achieved through any chemical means. Both of their bodies were drug-free at the time of their deaths. [31]

A subsequent FBI investigation placed partial blame for the agents' deaths on the lack of stopping power exhibited by their service handguns. While a few of the agents were equipped with 9mm semi-automatic pistols, most of the agents owned revolvers which made up the majority of the weapons involved in the fight. The FBI soon began the search for a more powerful caliber cartridge to issue to all agents. Noting the difficulties of reloading a revolver while under fire, the FBI specified that agents should be armed with magazine-fed semi-automatic pistols. This incident contributed to the increasing trend of law enforcement agencies to switch from revolvers to semi-automatics across the United States. [25]

In the aftermath, the FBI initially chose the Smith & Wesson 1076 chambered for the 10mm Auto round, but its sharp recoil proved too much for most agents to control effectively, and a special reduced velocity loading was developed - commonly referred to as the "10mm Lite" or "10mm FBI". Soon afterwards Smith & Wesson developed a shorter cased cartridge based on the 10mm, the .40 S&W. [32] This became more popular than its parent due to the ability to chamber in standard frame semi-automatic pistols initially designed for the 9mm Parabellum. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ]

Other issues were brought up in the aftermath of the shooting. Despite being on the lookout for two violent felons who were known to use firearms during their crimes, only two of the FBI vehicles contained shotguns (in addition to Mireles, McNeill had a shotgun in his car, but was unable to reach it before or during the shootout), and none of the agents were armed with a rifle. Only two of the agents were wearing ballistic vests, and the armor they were wearing was standard light body armor, which is designed to protect against handgun rounds, not the .223 Remington rounds fired by Platt's Mini-14 rifle. The other six agents involved in the stakeout in five vehicles, who did not reach the shootout in time to participate, did have additional weaponry including Remington shotguns, Heckler & Koch MP5 submachine guns, and M16 rifles. [14]

Agents Edit

Killed in action Edit

  • Benjamin Grogan: Smith & Wesson Model 459 9mm semi-automatic pistol, nine rounds fired. Killed by a .223 gunshot wound to the chest.
  • Jerry Dove: Smith & Wesson Model 459 9mm semi-automatic pistol, 20+ rounds fired. Killed by two .223 gunshot wounds to the head.

Wounded in action Edit

  • Richard Manauzzi: lost control of weapon in the initial vehicle collision, no shots fired. Minor wounds from shotgun pellets. [14]
  • Gordon McNeill: Smith & Wesson Model 19 .357 Magnum revolver (not FBI issue, but personally owned .357's and .38's could be approved for carry by supervisors, same applies with Mireles's Model 686), six rounds .38 Special+P fired. Seriously wounded by .223 gunshot wounds to the right hand and neck.
  • Edmundo Mireles: Remington 87012-gauge pump-action shotgun, five rounds of 00 buckshot fired .357 Magnum revolver Smith & Wesson Model 686, six rounds .38 Special +P fired. Seriously wounded by a .223 gunshot wound to the left forearm.
  • Gilbert Orrantia: S&W (model unknown, likely a Model 13, as it was an issued weapon at the time) .357 Magnum revolver, 12 rounds .38 Special +P fired. Wounded by shrapnel and debris produced by a .223 bullet near miss.
  • John Hanlon: Smith & Wesson Model 36 .38 Special revolver, five rounds .38 Special +P fired. Seriously wounded by .223 gunshot wounds to the right hand and groin.

Unwounded Edit

  • Ronald Risner: Smith & Wesson Model 459 9mm pistol, 14 rounds fired, S&W Model 60 .38 Special revolver, one round .38 Special +P fired.

Suspects Edit

  • William Matix: Smith & Wesson Model 3000 12-gauge pump shotgun, one round of #6 shot fired. Killed after being shot six times.
  • Michael Platt: Ruger Mini-14.223 Remington semi-automatic rifle with folding stock, at least 42 rounds fired, S&W M586 .357 Magnum revolver, three rounds fired, Dan Wesson .357 Magnum revolver, three rounds fired. Killed after being shot 12 times.

After the shooting, the families of Jerry Dove and Benjamin Grogan sued the estates of Platt and Matix under the RICO statute for damages. The lawsuit was dismissed because the families did not allege the "kind of recovery that RICO was designed to afford." [33]

In 2001, the Village of Pinecrest, Florida, which incorporated in 1996, honored the two fallen agents by co-designating a portion of Southwest 82nd Avenue as Agent Benjamin Grogan Avenue and Agent Jerry Dove Avenue. Street signs and a historical marker commemorate the naming of the roadway in Grogan and Dove's honor. [34]

Dove, a West Virginia native, had Jerry Dove Drive named after him in Clarksburg, West Virginia, where the FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division is located. He earned degrees from both West Virginia University and Marshall University. [35]

In 2014, the FBI Miami field office moved to its new home in Miramar, Florida, dedicating the two towers of the new office space in memory of Dove and Grogan in a ceremony in April 2015. The first floor contains a memorial to Dove and Grogan. Every year on April 11, the FBI Miami office holds a fallen agent ceremony in honor of Dove, Grogan, and all FBI agents killed in the line of duty. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ]


FBI 100 - Top 10 Moments

Over the course of a century—during which we’ve been involved in just about every major event in U.S. history and had countless innovations and famous cases—it’s hard to pick just ten. But here, in chronological order, are our choices for the top ten moments in FBI history…

1) July 26, 1908 – The Bureau is Born

No surprise on this one. But what you may not know is that our origins were somewhat tentative and filled with political intrigue. By early 1908, Teddy Roosevelt’s Attorney General—Charles Bonaparte—was growing weary of borrowing investigators from other agencies for federal cases under his jurisdiction. When Congress outlawed that practice in May, he had no choice but to pull together his own corps of agents. On July 26, Bonaparte sent a memo to his department announcing this new “force of special agents.” It started small, with just 34 agents and no name. And it was considered something of an experiment by both Bonaparte and Congress. But over time the force started making a difference…and the rest is history. Lisateave

2) May 10, 1924 – Hoover Takes the Helm

Appointed to clean up a scandal-plagued Bureau, 29-year-old Acting Director J. Edgar Hoover immediately began instituting a series of reforms that transformed the FBI into the professional law enforcement organization that it is today. Over the next decade, Hoover strengthened the organizational and hiring practices of the Bureau, created a central repository for criminal identification and criminal history records, instituted a technical laboratory (the forerunner of today’s FBI Lab), began gathering and reporting national crime stats, and fostered a rigorous training program for American and international law enforcement alike. Though often remembered more for controversies in his later years, Hoover played a vital role in lifting the overall capabilities and professionalism of the FBI and U.S. law enforcement.

The scene outside the railroad station
shortly after the “Kansas City” Massacre

3) June 17, 1933 – The Kansas City Massacre

It’s hard to imagine today, but for the Bureau’s first quarter-century agents weren’t allowed to make their own arrests, and they only carried weapons in limited cases. That began to change one shocking morning outside a train station in Kansas City, Missouri, when Charles “Pretty Boy” Floyd and other gangsters suddenly opened fire on a group of lawmen transporting an escaped con back to prison. Killed in the hail of bullets were two police officers, a police chief, and a Bureau special agent. The public was stunned by what became known as the “Kansas City Massacre,” and Congress responded within a year by authorizing special agents to carry guns, to make arrests, and to tackle a wider array of gangster crime, which has helped us protect the nation ever since. Lisateave

John Dillinger, who met his end on July 22, 1934

4) July 22, 1934 – The Death of Dillinger

In many ways, John Dillinger was the most notorious of the Depression-era gangsters, the leader of a ruthless band of gun-slinging bank robbers and crooks who was able to charm the press and American people into believing he was a harmless Robin Hood. Dillinger’s fame and ability to elude the law were reaching disastrous levels when we joined the hunt for him in the winter of 1933/1934. Despite a few stumbles along the way, Bureau agents tracked Dillinger down on July 22 and shot him dead in the streets of Chicago as he reached for his gun. The successful investigation catapulted the largely-unknown agency to worldwide fame and was the beginning of the end of the lawless gangster years. Lisateave

5) June 26, 1939 – Getting Ready for War

More than two years before bombs fell on Pearl Harbor, the FBI was already preparing to protect the nation from its wartime enemies. It started when President Franklin Roosevelt signed a secret order in June 1939 putting the FBI (and the Army and Navy to a lesser extent) in charge of homeland security, including espionage, sabotage, and subversion. In June 1940, we were also asked to collect foreign intelligence in Central and South America. Our ensuing “Special Intelligence Service,” or SIS—a little-known initiative even now—ended up producing a trove of intelligence and outing some 887 Axis spies. Though later dissolved with the creation of the CIA, the SIS laid the groundwork for our network of international offices, which are vital to our ability to combat global crime and terror today. And overall, our work before and during the war ensured that not a single act of enemy-directed sabotage was carried out on U.S. soil.

Julius and Ethel Rosenberg ride with Morton Sobell
(far left), another convicted member of the
Rosenberg’s spy ring, as the jury deliberates

6) September 1, 1947 – To Catch a Spy

Intelligence was not new to the FBI neither was cooperating with the Army. But in September 1947, these two things started to come together in a powerful way when Special Agent Wesley Reynolds was briefed on a top secret Army cryptanalytic program and brought decoded Soviet spy messages back to the Bureau. In the spring of 1948, Special Agent Robert Lamphere became interested in these messages and combined his expertise and the Bureau’s growing knowledge of Soviet espionage with the work of the Army’s brilliant cryptanalyst Meredith Gardner. Together, the two began to make sense of Soviet telegrams sent from the U.S. and other western countries during World War II. Soon they were on the trail of Soviet spies like Judith Coplon, Klaus Fuchs, Julius Rosenberg, and many others. Their work and that of their successors—a project now known as Venona—allowed the FBI and its partners to identify more than 100 Soviet agents, keep traitors from accessing crucial national secrets, and start moving more proactively against Soviet intelligence in the 1950s and beyond. When Venona was declassified in 1995, it led to a significant re-evaluation of Cold War history. Lisateave

This burnt-out station wagon led to the case
name “MIBURN,” short for Mississippi Burning.

By the early 1960s the civil rights movement was starting to make headway in America, but the backlash from the KKK and others was growing. When three young men who had volunteered to help register African-American voters in Mississippi disappeared suddenly on June 21, 1964, President Johnson called on the FBI to investigate, and we did so rigorously. Within a short time, we found the young men’s burnt-out station wagon (thus the famous case name “MIBURN”), located their bodies, and gathered important evidence that led to indictments. Although it took a long time (decades, tragically) to secure a measure of justice in the courtroom, national outrage over the crime helped spur passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Together with the Civil Rights Act of 1964, these laws—for the first time—put real teeth into the FBI’s ability to defend the rights and freedoms of all Americans. We’ve used them to great effect ever since. Lisateave

8) October 15, 1970 – New Law of the Land

In the fall of 1970, Congress passed the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act, commonly called “RICO,” as part of a larger bill. What a huge milestone it turned out to be. Finally, the FBI had the legal muscle to go after criminal enterprises like the Mafia the right way—investigating their entire organizations, leaders and all, instead of just individuals who had committed a crime. Thanks to this legislation and other new approaches (like using undercover agents and Title III wiretaps to gather evidence), we were soon working with our partners to dismantle entire mob families from the top down and putting a serious dent in the Mafia’s corrupting and violent ways. We’ve also used the law over the years to combat street gangs, drug rings, corruption activities, and even terrorist financing activities in this country.

The Watergate complex, site of the famous break-in

9) November 18, 1975 – Domestic Intelligence Redefined

During the early 1970s, especially after J. Edgar Hoover died in May 1972, revelations began to surface about potential abuses in the intelligence community. In 1975, on the heels of Watergate and the changing political climate it engendered, Senator Frank Church opened a series of hearings unlike any before into domestic intelligence issues. Front and center was the FBI, which was sharply criticized for its investigation of Dr. Martin Luther King, its surveillance practices, and other concerns. In response, the Bureau accelerated its re-evaluation of its domestic security programs and worked with the Attorney General to craft guidelines governing domestic security operations. These changes established clearer parameters for FBI cases and made agents more respectful than ever of the need to protect constitutional rights.


Is There Anything We Can Do About It?

It might seem like the average person is fairly powerless to stop the FBI snooping on our browsing history. However, there are some ways of fighting back.

“The failure to prohibit the warrantless collection of search and browser histories is another indicator of the continuing deterioration of internet users' online privacy,” said Chris Hauk, consumer privacy champion at Pixel Privacy. “This is why I strongly recommend that internet users only use security and privacy-focused browsers, such as Brave or the Tor Browser. Also, users should only perform searches on privacy-respecting search engines, such as DuckDuckGo.”

The Tor Browser, for example, works by encrypting your connection to the internet and then passing your traffic through voluntarily run servers to help mask your IP address.

However, the Tor Browser isn't the easiest to use, and your upload and download speeds will suffer with all that encryption and server-hopping.

VPNs are a slightly easier way to ensure incognito browsing. The basic idea behind a VPN is to create a private, encrypted ‘tunnel’ that connects your computer, smartphone, or tablet directly to a secure VPN proxy server. This, in turn, connects you to the rest of the internet.

The VPN server hides your true IP address, making it impossible to trace the connection directly to you. With all traffic to and from your device secured, no one can snoop on your activity or hijack your connection.

The methods will keep you more secure online than doing nothing. But, of course, you could always trying petitioning your senator or representative when the reauthorization returns to try and get the amendment removed.


7. Charles Winstead

Although unassuming Bureau agent Charles Winstead was involved in several high-profile cases in the 1930s and 40s, his main claim to fame is being the agent most likely to have fired the shot that finally downed the notorious John Dillinger. Yet while Winstead received a personal commendation for his actions from FBI chief J. Edgar Hoover, the two later fell out after Winstead slighted a journalist, and soon afterward the junior agent quit. It has been said that Winstead is not as well remembered as he should be for his exploits yet the man who took down such a notorious criminal as Dillinger, and who was also pivotal in tracking down “Baby Face” Nelson, definitely deserves recognition in our book.


Not To Be Forgotten.

". you don't know what hell is until you are a young housewife in Chicago with a 3-month old child and your husband gets a call to throw some clothes in a bag and go to Wisconsin at once. Later that evening a radio bulletin said that 2 unidentified FBI agents had been killed in Wisconsin. The wife of the agent across the hall and I called the Bureau headquarters all night trying frantically to find out if we were widows. When you have gone through that you will have been through hell." (Judge Don Metcalfe, son of Special Agent (SA) James Metcalfe, recalls his mother's words.)

The Depression Era's war on crime came on hard, and it came on fast. To say that formal firearms and investigative training was still in its infancy is an understatement. As Judge Don Metcalfe told me in a telephone interview, "It wasn't until months after the Kansas City Massacre in 1933 that my father had to learn how to shoot a gun and drive a car."

The 1920s claimed the lives of two FBI agents. Between 1933 and 1934 alone, four FBI agents would be dead, and others wounded by the wretched bastards they pursued. By decade's end, four more agents would be added to the list of those lost. Policemen, sheriffs and detectives who worked with or without the Bureau were no less vulnerable.

Bureau agents and others who fought the 1930's war on crime didn't understand how much all of it would tax their home lives. Their remarkable bravery overshadowed the haunted thoughts that they may make widows of their wives and leave their children fatherless. What records of both theirs and official that can be found reveal the enduring and relentless fatigue of extremely long hours of being in one city one day and another the next. The all night driving or the seemingly limitless Pullman train rides. Boring and endless stakeouts false leads and mistaken identities. At times, on the move with only the clothing on their backs. Only to bed down in some motel or private room in a remote corner of a dusty, dry America or a grimy industrial city. There would be days and weeks away from their wives, their children and their friends who would have no idea of where they were or what they were doing. For many, the chase offered the best meal it could a hardened sandwich and a cup or two of some diner's rancid coffee. For many, Christmas and the important yearly holidays would have to wait another year…

Former Chicago FBI SAC, Melvin Purvis wrote about his FBI career in "American Agent" in 1935 after he resigned from the Bureau. He casually mentioned "my travel bag consisted of my hat." In the examination of documents left behind in personal and FBI files, we can readily see how brutal life’s demands were on the limited Bureau staff nationwide.

Importantly though, Purvis wrote "There were men who served with me who never knew the emotion of fear. They belonged to the glory company of history, those joyous daredevils who, from time immemorial, have been vainly waiting for a commander to order a charge on the gateways of hell. for it was war, and nothing less. but the story of what went on behind the scenes. made possible the triumph of law and order, has never been told." Tireless investigations, heartbreaking and tragic failures, Purvis recalled. ". What we really needed was one night of uninterrupted sleep. "

1925 - Charles B. Winstead - (FBI Application Photo)

One small article I read years back was the catalyst for the creation of this website.

An online Dallas newspaper report revealed that the memoirs of former FBI Special Agent, Charles Winstead were in a museum in Sherman, Texas. Having known the Winstead name and his role in the Dillinger shooting and many other high profile cases of the '30s, one could only wonder why a document of this value to FBI and police history had never made it out of the city of Sherman where Winstead was born. Or at least copies of it. It was important that others read it. After all, Winstead was just one of the many who belonged to the "glory company of history" that Purvis referred to.

But somehow overpowering the news story of John Dillinger and the Winstead memoirs, came a final note from the author of the Dallas article. He said, "FBI Agent Winstead, who died in bed at 82 in 1973, is today widely disremembered."

"Winstead is. widely disremembered. " It's one of those phrases you need to read twice. Let that thought sink in for a moment.

History and the passage of Time does that to us. Memories, like photos, tend to fade as the years march on. In many instances, we know more about the gangsters and cop killers (like Bonnie and Clyde) than we do about those in pursuit. But how many others, especially those who died in the line of duty, are "disremembered?" Men who were such an intricate part of the beginnings of a very young and inexperienced FBI.

FBI Agents searching the Northwest forests for a kidnapped child. (Courtesy Franklin family)

Who were these young warriors who took on a mission that would cost some their lives and the lives of local officers they worked with? What about those who worked behind the scenes to bring the FBI into the twenty first century? Where did they come from and what was their involvement what of their own stories about what happened? Where are their children and grandchildren? What of their father's and grandfather's letters, diaries and the now fading photographs no one has seen?

An entire generation of FBI Agents is gone. So is the evil they pursued. Their biographies are diverse. From immigrants to those U.S. born from lawyers to accountants, former Texas Rangers, or Oklahoma and surrounding lawmen sports legends, boxers, and veterans of the Great War. Scientists, technicians and others.

For decades, these G-men and their police and detective counterparts have been long forgotten and hardly mentioned except at times to play second fiddle to our own obsessions with the killers they pursued. Today, not many will know the names of the men who left their homes and families in pursuit of those who wreaked havoc on the weak and defenseless of American society. Under perhaps the worst of conditions, FBI men and local law enforcement counterparts at times who risked their lives daily and who were the real heroes of America's "lawless years." An era of straw hats, tommy guns, dusty midwest roads, wooden shacks, rented rooms, and running boards.

FBI Agent James J. Metcalfe of the 30s left us with their vision when he wrote "Portraits We Were The G-Men." "We helped the Bureau grow, we suffered heartaches and we lost the lives of several men. But surely everyone of us would do that job again. Because today the FBI is worthy of its name and we are proud and happy that we helped create its fame."

This website is a tribute to the many FBI Agents of the '30s now long "disremembered," their police counterparts and a very young FBI they were so proud of. It is now their official recorded accounts in file of what happened - sometimes distorted by many over the decades. It's these records, their photos left behind their letters, diaries, their memoirs, family recollections which tell us the stories of those forgotten.

. For their survivors, this site is for the honor of their fathers and grandfathers.

Copyright, Larry E. Wack. Photos and content of this website cannot be used without permission. Contact us through the Navigation Section above.

Retired Special Agent, Larry [email protected]

Larry Wack passed away on January 14, 2019, after a long battle with cancer. This website will be kept online for the foreseeable future by his surviving family in memory of all of the research and dedication that he put into preserving the FBI history. There are no alterations/additions planned at this time.

Website owner/editor, retired FBI Special Agent Larry Wack, spent over 30 years in the FBI. During the years of 1968 to 1972 he worked in Director J. E. Hoover's FBI in Washington, D.C. as a support employee while attending college at night. A majority of those years were spent in the Civil Rights Section of the General Investigative Division. After Director Hoover died in May, 1972, Mr. Wack continued working at FBI Headquarters until 1975. In 1975, being a graduate of American University in Washington, D. C., he became a Special Agent of the FBI. After graduating the FBI Academy, he was assigned to the NYC Office's bombing investigations squad, later becoming a member of the Bureau's original Terrorist Task Force. During that time he was intimately involved in the Bureau's major terrorism cases of the era. After only a few years out of the Academy, he was the recipient of the Attorney General's Award For Excellence In Law Enforcement. In 1990, he was transferred to the Buffalo, N.Y. Office. There he assisted with the original set-up and became the Coordinator of the Fugitive/Gang Task Force, in addition to having his own caseload. He retired from the FBI in 2003.

Until recently, he spent a lot of time with hobbies of fly fishing and his 1966 Chevy "muscle car. '“ Going to Cruise Nites" and re-visiting those wonderful days of music by Buddy Holly and others of that era.

Comments and opinions of the site owner do not necessarily reflect those of other current /former or retired Special Agents nor other law enforcement entities. The site editor/owner is not a spokesman for the FBI or any related Societies.


Forms

FBI Fingerprint Form FD-258 – For the submission of fingerprints. If sent by mail at least 2 different copies should be conducted at the LiveScan or Standard Location.

Credit Card Authorization Form – Attach and enter the credit card details to be used for the $18 fee. Otherwise, the applicant may also send a Certified Check or Money Order made to the “Treasury of the United States”. Checks are not allowed.

Request Release (Attorney) – If the applicant would like the criminal history report to be sent to their attorney they may do so by sending this form along with the application.


Criminal Record Checks

U.S. citizens may be asked to present a “certificate of good conduct” or “lack of a criminal record” for a variety of reasons for use abroad, including adoption, school attendance, employment, etc. U.S. law enforcement authorities may not be familiar with such a procedure since it is not commonly requested in the United States. There are a variety of options available to U.S. citizens seeking to obtain proof of their lack of a criminal record.

Local Police Check

Go to your local police department where you reside or last resided in the United States, request that the police conduct a local or state criminal records search and provide you with a document reflecting that there is no history of a criminal record. Local police departments may require your personal appearance in order to conduct the search. You should determine whether the country where you intend to use the records check requires that it be authenticated. For information on that process please see our authentications page.

FBI Records Check

The Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Division of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) centralizes criminal justice information and provides accurate and timely information and services to local, state, federal, and international law enforcement agencies, the private sector, academia, and other government agencies.

The FBI offers two methods for requesting your FBI Identification Record or proof that a record does not exist:


Design & Construction

Longest serving Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, lawyer, and criminologist, J. Edgar Hoover was born on January 1, 1895 in Washington, DC to Annie Marie Scheitlin Hoover and Dickerson Naylor Hoover. Hoover attended night classes at George Washington University while working as a clerk at the Library of Congress. After being admitted to the District of Columbia bar in 1917, his uncle—who was a judge—helped him land a job in the U.S. Justice Department. Within two years, Hoover became a special assistant to Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer. In this position, he was given the responsibility of heading a new section within the Justice Department’s Bureau of Investigation called the General Intelligence Division (GID). The GID was created to gather intelligence on radical groups, and was responsible for organizing the arrest or deportation of alleged seditionists. This led to the controversial “Palmer Raids,” in which Hoover and his associates arrested and deported left-wing radicals, especially anarchists, from the U.S.

Designed by the Chicago-based firm C.F. Murphy Associates, the building was constructed in several phases starting in 1967. The design for the building includes features typically associated with late modern Brutalist architecture: exposed concrete, deep window recesses, strong, powerful massing and monumentality. Combining asymmetrical elements and masses with repetitive and symmetrical bays, the design attempts to be both monumental and fitting within the urban neighborhood. The building was dedicated in 1975, although some areas were not entirely completed until 1977. The building was constructed by Norair Engineering and Blake Construction Company, both based in Washington.


FBI - History

EMPLOYMENT ELIGIBILITY

In order to be eligible for employment with the FBI, applicants must violate none of the automatic employment disqualifiers, and adhere to the FBI’s pre-employment drug policy. Please ensure you meet these standards before submitting an application. All of these disqualifiers are extensively researched during the FBI Background Investigation Process.

Below are specific elements that will automatically disqualify job candidates for employment with the FBI. These include:

  • Non-U.S. citizenship
  • Conviction of a felony (Special Agent candidates only: conviction of a domestic violence misdemeanor or more serious offense)
  • Violation of the FBI Employment Drug Policy (please see below for additional details)
  • Default on a student loan insured by the U.S. Government
  • Failure of an FBI-administered urinalysis drug test
  • Failure to register with the Selective Service System (for males only, exceptions apply – please click here to find out more)
  • Knowingly or willfully engaged in acts or activities designed to overthrow the U.S. government by force
  • Failure to pay court ordered child support
  • Failure to file federal, state, or local income tax returns

Please note that if you are disqualified by any of the above tests, you are not eligible for employment with the FBI. Please make sure you can meet FBI employment requirements and pass all disqualifiers before you apply for an FBI position.

The FBI is firmly committed to a drug-free society and workplace. Applicants for employment with the FBI who are currently using illegal drugs, misusing or abusing legal drugs or other substances for illicit purposes at the time of the application process will be found unsuitable for employment. The FBI balances the needs of the organization and the importance of keeping the public integrity necessary to accomplish its law enforcement and intelligence missions by hiring the most qualified candidates. The guidelines are used by all entities in the hiring process to help determine whether an applicant's prior drug use makes him or her eligible and/or suitable for FBI employment.

A candidate will be found unsuitable for employment and automatically disqualified if he/she deliberately misrepresents his or her drug history in connection with his or her application for employment. Additionally, candidates are automatically disqualified under the following criteria:

Marijuana Usage:

Candidates cannot have used marijuana or cannabis in any form (natural or synthetic) and in any location (domestic or foreign) within the one (1) year preceding the date of their application for employment.

Marijuana or cannabis use before the candidate's 18th birthday is not a disqualifier for FBI employment, however, adjudicative personnel will evaluate the candidate by using the "whole-person concept."

Dronabinol (sold as Marinol, Syndros, or generic equivalents) is the only pharmaceutical drug containing tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) that the FDA has approved for lawful use with a medical prescription. Candidates cannot present "medical marijuana cards" or other prescriptions as mitigating factors for marijuana or cannabis use.

Illegal Drugs:

Candidates cannot have used any illegal drug, other than marijuana, within the ten (10) years preceding the date of the application for employment.

Additionally, candidates cannot have sold, distributed, manufactured, or transported any illegal drug or controlled substance without legal authorization.

Prescription Drugs/Legally Obtainable Substances:

Candidates cannot have used anabolic steroids without a prescription from a licensed practicing physician within the past ten (10) years preceding the date of the application for employment.

Finally, candidates cannot have sold, distributed, manufactured, or transported any prescription drug without legal authorization.

FBI Background Investigation

All FBI employees must undergo an FBI Background Investigation and receive an FBI Top Secret security clearance. Once you have received and accepted a conditional job offer, the FBI will initiate an intensive background investigation. You must go through this background investigation, and you must pass, before moving forward with employment. The preliminary employment requirements include a polygraph examination a test for illegal drug use credit and records checks and extensive interviews with former and current colleagues, neighbors, friends, professors, etc. Before applying for any FBI position, please make sure that the FBI Employment Disqualifiers do not apply to you.