Galerii nr 120 malevkonnale

Galerii nr 120 malevkonnale


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z -

Suur tänu Peter Claydonile, kes saatis meile need pildid, mis kuulusid tema onule C.W.J. Claydon, kes veetis suure osa sõjast teenindades arstina koos eskaadriga nr 120 Põhja -Iirimaal Ballykelly's.


Kanada sõjalennunduse kronoloogia 1939-1947

Üksus nr. 1. juunil viis S/L EG Fullerton esimese orkaani Vancouverist Calgarys asuvasse eskadrilli baasi.

Nende Majesteedi kuninga ja kuninganna visiidi ajal pakkus RCAF õhusaatjaid ja auvahtkondi. Kolm Stranraerit saatsid kuningliku jahi Quebeci saabudes üles St. Trentonis lendas saatjaga viis Wapiti ja kolm Atlase lennukit ning Vancouveris saatsid Victoria ja tagasi reisil oma Majesteete kolm Stranraerit ja viis orkaani. Kuni kuningas ja kuninganna elasid Ottawas, pakkus RCAF kuninglikku majapidamist.

RCAF -i eskadronid hakkasid kolima sõjajaamadesse. Ei .. 3 (B) Squadron ’s Wapitis lahkus Calgaryst teel Halifaxisse, millele järgnes viis päeva hiljem nr 1 (F) eskadrill teel St Huberti. Nr 2 (AC) malevkond hakkas liikuma Trentonist Halifaxisse ja sealt edasi Saint Johnisse. Eskaader nr 8 (GP) lahkus Ottawast Sydneysse pärast oma lennukite tagasivõtmist üksikutelt fotooperatsioonidelt.

Sõja eelõhtul oli RCAF -i kogujõud 4061 ohvitseri ja lennuväelast (alaline – 298 ohvitseri, 2750 lennuväeohvitseri ja#8211 112 ohvitseri, 901 lennuväelast). Sellel oli 270 lennukit, 28 erinevat tüüpi teenust ja#8221 teenust, sealhulgas kakskümmend kaks Wapitist, kakskümmend Oxfordi, üheksateist orkaani, kolmteist Atlast, kaksteist Deltat, üksteist haid, kümme lahingut, üheksa võõrast, viis Siskini, neli norralast ja neli Vancouverit.

Vägede organisatsioon oli järgmine:

  • Peakorter ja registriamet, Ottawa
  • Lääne õhuvägi, Vancouver
  • Ida õhuvägi, Halifax
  • Õhukoolituse juhtkond, Toronto
  • Vancouver
  • Dartmouth
  • Ottawa (foto loomine, katse- ja arenduslend, sidelend)
  • Camp Borden (keskkoolitustiibade peakorter, keskastme väljaõppe eskadrill, vahepealse maapealse koolituskooli nr 2 tehniline koolituskool)
  • Trenton (täiendkoolituse tiiva peakorter, täiendkoolituseskadrill, kõrgema maapealse juhendamise kool nr 1 Tehniline väljaõpe, õhurelvastus, varustuse väljaõpe, lennuliiklus ja vesilennuk ning traadita side koolid).
  • Nr 1 (F) ja#8211 orkaan teekonnal St. Hubert
  • Nr 2 (AC) – Atlas Saint John, NB
  • Nr 3 (B) – Wapiti, teel Halifaxisse
  • Nr 4 (GR) – Vancouver ja Stranraer Vancouver
  • Nr 5 (GR) ja#8211 Stranraer Dartmouth
  • Nr 6 (TB) ja#8211 Shark Vancouver
  • Nr 7 (GP) – Fairchild ja Norseman Ottawa
  • Nr 8 (GP) ja#8211 Delta Sydney
  • Eskadrillid nr 9, 10 ja 11 olid samuti volitatud, kuid ei moodustunud enne 1. septembrit.
  • Nr 1 Lennuk, Ottawa
  • Nr 2 Varustus, Winnipeg
  • Nr 3 remont, Vancouver
  • Nr 4 remont, Dartmouth
  • Nr 5 Varustus, Moncton
  • Nr 11 (tehniline), Montreal
  • Nr 12 (tehniline), Toronto
  • Nr 13 (tehniline), Vancouver
  • Nr 21 (ajakiri), Kamloops
  • Nr 22 (ajakiri), Debert

Täiendavad aktiivsed õhujõud

  • Nr 110 (AC), Toronto
  • Nr 111 (CAC), Vancouver
  • Nr 112 (AC), Winnipeg
  • Nr 113 (F), Calgary
  • Nr 114 (B), London
  • Nr 115 (F), Montreal
  • Nr 116 (F), Halifax
  • Nr 117 (CAC), püha Johannes
  • Nr 118 (B), Montreal
  • Nr 119 (B), Hamilton
  • Nr 120 (B), Regina
  • Nr 121 (F), Quebeci linn

Kõigil 12 abieskadronil oli PF -üksus. Viis eskaadrit (nr. 113, 114, 116, 117 ja 121) olid veel organiseerimise esialgses staadiumis ja saadeti laiali pärast sõjategevust.

Enne sõja väljakuulutamist tehti märkimisväärseid edusamme Vaikse ookeani ja Atlandi ookeani ranniku baaside rajamisel või parandamisel. Monctonis avati varustusdepoo ja Debertis ajakiri. Transpordiministeeriumi meteoroloogiateenistust laiendati idarannikule ja kavandati täielikku teenindust kõikidele õhuväeasutustele. Teenistusrelvastuse täiustamisega tegeleti aktiivselt. Peakorteris moodustati relvastusdirektoraat, laiendati Trentoni õhurelvastuskooli ja moderniseeriti kõigi teenistuslennukite relvastust. Korraldati ka luureosakond.

Teenistuslendude koolitus ajavahemikul 1. aprill kuni 31. august kestis kokku 11 924,15 tundi (alalised üksused 7104,20 ja abieskadrillid 4819,55, sealhulgas
iga kahe nädala suvelaagris). Nagu eelmisel aastal korraldati, viidi põhikoolitus läbi tsiviillennundusklubides, vaheõpe toimus Camp Bordenis ja täiendus Trentonis. Tsiviilõppe algõpetajate koolitamiseks avati aasta alguses Camp Bordenis Flying Instructors ’ School.

Tsiviilvalitsuse lennuoperatsioonid koosnesid Dominioni metsateenistuse ning geoloogia ja topograafia büroo aerofotograafiast ja uuringust. Üks kolmest lennukist koosnev salk määrati juulis Labradori ranniku üksikasjalikuks tutvumiseks. Töö katkes aga siis, kui lennuk tuli saata Labradoris eksinud tsiviilmasina otsingule. Kogu fototöö peatati 25. augustil. Selleks kuupäevaks oli registreeritud 424,35 tundi ja#8217 lendamist ning pildistatud 25 100 ruut miili.

Saksamaa ründas Poolat. RCAF pandi tegevteenistusse.

Suurbritannia ja Prantsusmaa kuulutasid Saksamaale sõja.

P/O Selby R Henderson, kanadalane nr 206 eskadronis, RAF, oli juhtiv navigeerija Saksa sõjalaevu ründava pommitusjõu juures. Nii sai temast esimene kanadalane, kes osales Teises maailmasõjas operatiivsel korraldamisel.

Kanada kuulutas Saksamaale sõja.

Nõukogu korraldusel loodi RCAF-i erireserv ja see pandi tegevteenistusse.

Teel Meganticust, PQ -st Sydneysse, NSV -sse sõjaaja ülesannete täitmiseks, Delta Mk II seerianumber. 673 (endine Northrop Gamma) luurelennuk kadus. Masina rusud asusid 1958. aastal, 19 aastat pärast kukkumist New Brunswickis, kuid selle meeskonnast, FS JE Doanist ja LAC DA Rennie'st polnud jälgegi. (Hr Joseph Nelles kirjutas kaheleheküljelise loo pealkirjaga “Firm Lost …Last Found ”, mis ilmus ajakirja Airforce 19. köites, nr 4, lk 3-4, ja#8211 jaanuar 1996 –, mis räägib kogu loo Kanada ja Teise maailmasõja esimesed ohvrid. Kui soovite loost koopiat, kirjutage režissöörile aadressil airforce.ca e-posti teel).

Peastaabis moodustati õhujõudude mehitamise direktoraat, et suunata vägede kiiret laienemist ja üle Dominioni avati 20 värbamiskeskust. Majandusaasta lõpuks (31. märts 1940) oli laekunud 102 777 taotlust.

RCAF mehitamisbassein (hiljem nr 1 Manning Depo) moodustati Torontos.

S/L William Isaac Clements, mis on lisatud nr 53 (Blenheimi) malevkonna juurde, RAF, tegi kaugluure öise luure Prantsusmaalt Metzist Hammi-Hannoveri piirkonda Saksamaal ja oli esimene RCAF-i liige, kes üle lendas vaenlase territoorium.

Kavandatud koolituskava elluviimiseks lubati peakorteris korraldus- ja koolitusosakonna moodustamine. (Peakorter koosnes nüüd neljast osakonnast: õhutöötajad, personal, lennundustehnika ja -varustus ning organisatsioon ja väljaõpe ning#8211 igaüks lennuliikme alluvuses. 21. oktoobril võeti kasutusele uued “Air Liikmed ja#8221 ametinimetused).

Ühendkuningriigi, Kanada, Austraalia ja Uus-Meremaa valitsused allkirjastasid Ottawas lepingu Briti Rahvaste Ühenduse õhuõppekava koostamiseks, mille korraldab ja haldab Kanada valitsus (RCAF). Esialgses plaanis tehti ettepanek rajada kolm esmast koolituskooli, kolmteist alglennukoolitust, kuusteist teeninduslennukoolitust, kümme õhuvaatlejate kooli, kümme pommitus- ja relvakooli, kaks lennuliikluskooli ja neli juhtmeta kooli, lisaks vajalikud abikoolid ja depoo, kokku 74 ühikut.

Väljaõpe pidi algama 29. aprillil 1940 ja kõik koolid pidid toimima 30. aprilliks 1942. Kui plaan oli täielikult välja töötatud, oli plaan toota 520 algõppega pilooti, ​​544 teenistuskoolituse pilooti, ​​340 vaatlejat ja 580 traadita õhupüssit iga nelja nädala tagant.

RCAF -i tugevus aasta lõpus oli 8287 ohvitseri ja lennuväelast, kasvades nelja kuuga enam kui 100 protsenti. Seal oli 280 alalist, 195 abi- ja 454 erireservi ohvitseri ning 7 358 lennuväelast.

Operatiivjõud oli neliteist eskadrilli, mis kõik asusid Kanadas: nr 1 (F) Dartmouth, nr 4 (BR) Vancouver, nr 5 (BR) Dartmouth, nr 6 (BR) Vancouver, nr 8 (BR) Põhja -Sydney, nr 10 (BR), moodustatud 5. septembril nr 3, Halifax, nr 11 (BR) Dartmouth, nr 110 (AC) Ottawa, nr 111 (CAC) Vancouver, nr 112 (AC ) Ottawa, nr 115 (F) St. Hubert, nr 118 (B) Dartmouth, nr 119 (B) Hamilton ja
Nr 120 (BR) Vancouver.

RCAF Overseas peakorter, London, Inglismaa, moodustati W/C FV Heakesi alluvuses, kes oli olnud RCAF -i kontaktametnik. 7. märtsil asus juhtima G/C MV Walsh, MBE.

Londoni väljaanne teatas, et RAF -i kaks kanadalast P/O SR Henderson ja W/C JF Griffiths said auhinnatud lennuristi vaenlase vastaste õhuoperatsioonide eest - esimesed kanadalased, kes said sõja ajal kaunistatud. P/O Henderson ’s auhind oli Saksa lendavate paatide ründamise eest 8. novembril 1939. W/C Griffiths sai auhinna rünnakute eest Saksa sõjalaevadele 14. detsembril 1939.

Eskaader nr 110 (AC), mida täiendas nr 2 (AC) eskadroni isikkoosseis, sõitis Halifaxist S/L WB Van Vliet juhtimisel. See maabus 25. veebruaril Liverpoolis, esimene 48 -st RCAF -i eskaadrist, mis sõja ajal teenisid ülemeremaades.

Sõjaeelne traadita kool viidi Trentonist Montreali ja nimetati uuesti traadita kooliks nr 1, esimene neljast sellisest koolist tegutses BCATP raames.

Majandusaastal, 1. aprillil 1939–31. Märtsil 1940, lendas RCAF 69 472,50 tundi, sealhulgas 5022,10 tundi teenindustegevuses ja 60 316,30 tundi koolitusel tsiviillennuklubides, teeninduskoolides ja üksustes. Saldo (4 134,10 tundi) hõlmas katsetamist, õhusõidukite üleandmist, transporti, tsiviilvalitsuse operatsioone (enne 25. augustit 1939), koostööd miilitsaga ja mitmesuguseid ülesandeid.

BCATP rakendamiseks korraldati neli koolitusjuhti. Õhukoolituse juhtkond (Toronto) nimetati uuesti 1. jaanuariks 1. jaanuariks nr 2 TC moodustati Winnipegis 15. aprillil, nr 3 TC Montrealis 18. märtsil ja nr 4 TC Reginas 29. aprillil.

Esialgne koolituskool nr 1 avati ametlikult Torontos Eglintoni jahiklubis, neelates varem Trentonis asunud maapealse koolituse kooli. Esimene BCATP praktikantide, 164 AC2, kogus saabus 29. aprillil.

Trentonis loodi nr 1 lennunavigatsioonikool, mis pakub BCATP õpilastele selles valdkonnas erikoolitust.

Winnipegi linna eskadrilli nr 112 (AC) eelrühm sõitis Montrealist välja ja maandus Liverpoolis kaheksa päeva hiljem.

Hon CG Power, KC, MC, määrati õhukaitse riigikaitseministriks.

23. mail võttis RAF -i vahetusohvitser S/L FM Gobeil, kes juhtis RAF -i eskaadrit nr 242 (Kanada), Prantsusmaal Bereki lähedal Bf.109. Kaks päeva hiljem tulistas see ohvitser teises lahingus Belgias Menini lähedal maha minu. 110.

Õhuvaatlejate kool nr 1 avati ametlikult Maltonis BCATP praktikantide esimese vastuvõtuga. Kõiki AOS -e haldasid tsiviilfirmad RCAF -i järelevalve all.

Eskaader nr 1 (F), mida täiendavad S/L EA McNabi juhtimisel olevad eskaadri nr 115 (F) isikkoosseisud ja nr 112 (AC) eskadrill, mida juhib S/L WF Hanna , purjetas Halifaxist ja saabus Liverpooli 20. juunil.

Dartmouthi eskadrill nr 10 (BR) saatis Newfoundlandi lennujaamast opereerima viis Douglas Digbysi koosseisu S/L HM Carscalleni juhtimisel.
(Gander).

Moodustati õhunõukogu, kes nõustas riigikaitseministrit õhu alal.

Esimesed neli alglennukoolitust (nr 1 Maltonis, nr 2 Fort Williamis, nr 3 Londonis ja nr 4 Windsor Millsis, PQ) olid ametlikult
avati 24 BCATP õpilaspiloodi sissevõtuga. EFTS -e haldasid peamiselt tsiviilettevõtted, kellel oli RCAF -i järelevalvejõud. Erandiks oli EFTS Cap de la Madeleine'is, mida opereeris Quebec Airways.

RCAF -i lipu kiitis heaks HM the King. See kohandati RAF -i lipnikust, asendades punase vahtralehe ümmarguse keskel oleva punase ringiga.

Esimesest BCATP õpilaste vastuvõtust teeninduslennukoolitustele teatati Camp Bordeni teeninduskoolituskoolile nr 1. Kool oli moodustatud aasta alguses seal tegutsenud õppeüksustest.

S/L EA McNab hävitas lennuga nr 111 eskaadriga, RAF, Do. 215 ja võitis RCAF -i esimese võidu Suurbritannia lahingus.

Eskaader nr 1 (hilisem nr 401) alustas tööd oma orkaani lennukil ning hakkas patrullima ja rüselema oma baasi kohal Northoltis.

Pommitamise ja relvastuskool nr 1 loodi Jarvis, Ontario, esimene üheteistkümnest sellisest koolist, mis moodustati BCATP raames, et koolitada pommitajaid ja õhutulistajaid RCAF -i ja Rahvaste Ühenduse õhujõudude jaoks.

Nõukogu korraldusel moodustati alaline ühine kaitsenõukogu, et koordineerida Kanada ja Ameerika tegevust Põhja-Ameerika kaitsmisega. Juhatus, mis koosneb tsiviilisikutest ja mõlema riigi kõigi teenistuste töötajatest, pidas oma esimese koosoleku 26. augustil. Paljud selle hilisemad koosolekud käsitlesid õhujõudude küsimusi, sealhulgas Loode peatumistee, allveelaevade vastased operatsioonid ja lennukite tarnimine. Esimene RCAF -i esindaja juhatuses oli kliimaseade Albert Abraham Lawson Cuffe (pildil ülal). Air Commodore Cuffe kohta lisateabe saamiseks vaadake seda linki siin.

Püüdes kinni 25 või 30 Dornieri pommitaja rünnakut, hävitas nr 1 eskadron kolm ja vigastas nelja. F/0 RL Edwards hukkus kihlumises ja#8211 RCAF -i esimene lahinguohvr. Nr 1 jäi Suurbritannia lahingusse kuni 9. oktoobrini, kui see puhkamiseks tagasi võeti. 53-päevase ajavahemiku jooksul, 17. augustist kuni 9. oktoobrini, omistati talle 30 vaenlase lennuki hävitamist ja veel 43 kahjustamist. Kolm pilooti said lennu ajal surma ja kümme haavata või vigastada.

S/L EA McNab, eskaadri nr 1 (F) esimees, pälvis teenetemärgi Briti lahingus auväärse lendristi. Kolm päeva hiljem said DFC ka F/L Gordon Roy McGregor (pildil) ja sama eskaardi F/O BD Russel. (McGregori kohta lisateabe saamiseks külastage seda linki siin).

Koolitus ja varustamine eraldati vastavalt AMOT -ist ja AMAES -ist ning neist said eraldi liikmed õhuliikmete all. Nõukogus antud määrusega lubati moodustada Kanada Air Cadet League, tsiviilorganisatsioon, mis koolitaks 12–18 -aastaseid poisse võimalikuks edaspidiseks kaasamiseks RCAF -i.

BCATPi lõpetajate, 12 ohvitseri ja 25 seersantvaatlejat, esimene mustand jõudis Liverpooli. Kursus 37 inimest oli lõpetanud 24. oktoobril Trentonis lennuliikluse kooli nr 1.

Välismaal oli kolm RCAF -eskadrilli: nr 1 (F), nr 110 (AC) ja nr 2 (F), mis oli äsja moodustatud nr 112 (AC) eskadronist. Kodus oli üksteist eskadrilli: EAC – nr 5, 10 ja 11 (BR) Darmouthis, nr 8 (BR) Põhja -Sydneys ja nr 119 (BR) Yarmouthis WAC -s ja#8211 No. 4 (BR) Ucluelet'is, nr 6 (BR) Coal Harbouris ja nr 111 (F), 120 (BR) ja 13 (Operational Training) Patricia Bay nr 12 (side) eskadron paigutati Rockcliffe'i.

17. detsembri 1939. aasta lepingu artikkel 15, tingimusel et Kanada, Austraalia ja Uus -Meremaa õpilased identifitseeritakse pärast väljaõppe lõppu oma vastava alaga kas Dominioni üksuste ja koosseisude korraldamise meetodi abil või mõnel muul viisil ” 7. jaanuaril 1941 Londonis allkirjastatud täiendava Sinclair-Ralstoni kokkuleppega sätestati, et järgmise 18 kuu jooksul moodustatakse Ühendkuningriigis 25 RCAF-i eskadrilli (välja arvatud esialgsed kolm Kanadast saadetud eskaadrit) ).

RAF-üksustega segaduse vältimiseks nummerdati RCAF-i eskaadrid ülemere 400-seeriasse. Seega sai nr 110 numbriks 400 nr 1 nr 401 ja nr 112, mis oli ümber korraldatud nr 2 (F) malevkonnaks, nr 402. Samal kuupäeval võeti nr 402 kasutusele, teine ​​RCAF hävitajate eskadrill, kes asus tegutsema välismaal. Nr 403 (F) malevkond, esimene “Artikli 15 ja#8221 üksustest, moodustati Bagintonis, Inglismaal. Sellele järgnes järgmise kümne kuu jooksul veel 17, sealhulgas:

  • Nr 404 (rannavõitleja) 15. aprill
  • Nr 405 (pommitaja) 23. aprill
  • Nr 407 (rannikuäärne) 8. mai
  • Nr 406 (Öövõitleja) 10. mai
  • Nr 411 (Võitleja) 16. juuni
  • Nr 409 (Öövõitleja) 17. juuni
  • Nr 408 (pommitaja) 24. juuni
  • Nr 410 (Öövõitleja) 30. juuni
  • Nr 412 (Võitleja) 30. juuni
  • Nr 413 (rannik) 1. juulil
  • Nr 414 (armee koostöö) 12. august
  • Nr 415 (rannik) 20. august
  • Nr 418 (sissetungija) 15. november
  • Nr 416 (Võitleja) 18. november
  • Nr 417 (Võitleja) 27. november
  • Nr 419 (pommitaja) 7. detsember
  • Nr 420 (pommitaja) 19. detsember

Neist nr 403 kuni 413 (kaasa arvatud) olid aasta lõpuks tegevust alustanud.

Nr 10 (BR) malevkond, millel oli lend Ganderis alates 1940. aasta juunist, kolis Newfoundlandi lennujaama.

Kaksteist eskaadri nr 402 pilooti eesotsas W/C GR McGregoriga, DFC, osalesid ründavas patrullis Prantsusmaa ranniku Boulogne'i sektoris. See oli esimene ründeoperatsioon, mille RCAF üksus viidi läbi vaenlase käes oleva territooriumi kohal.

Operatiivkoolitus Kanadas algas avamisega nr 31 operatiivkoolituse üksus Debertis, NS. Hudsoni ja Bolingbroke'i lennukitega varustatud üksus oli esimene kümnest OTU -st, mis asusid Kanadas RAF -i ja RCAF -i kontrolli all.

Kolm Vickers Wellingtoni pommitajat nr 405 eskadronist viisid RCAF -i esimese rünnaku Saksamaale, pommitades Dortmundist kagus asuva Schwerte kaubalaevastikke, kokku 9000 naela kõrge lõhkeainet ja 2160 naela süüdatajaid kolmele lennukile.

Nõukogu korraldusega lubati moodustada Kanada naiste ja õhuväe abiväed, et värvata naisi erinevatele maapealsetele ametitele, et mehed saaksid lahingukohustuste täitmiseks vabastada. Sõja lõpuks oli sinna registreeritud 17 038 naist, kellest üle 1500 teenis välismaal. Esimene naissoost ohvitser oli lennuametnikuks määratud Kathleen Walker, 2. juulil oli esimene õhinaine Jane Bennett.

PL-6819 23. veebruar 1942
Sgt. Joseph Laurent Guillaume Robillard (DFC)

Lennates Spitfire'iga koos nr 145 eskadroniga (RAF), tulistati Prantsusmaa kohal alla FS JGL Robillard. Prantsuse tsiviilisikutega ühendust võttes hoidus ta vangistamisest kõrvale ja jõudis oktoobri lõpuks Gibraltarile. Hiljem naasis ta operatiivülesannete juurde. FS Robillard oli esimene RCAF -i lennumees, kellest sai edukas “evader ”. (Lisateavet leiate sellelt lingilt).

Eskaader nr 116, mille kapteniks oli F/L NE Small, ründas U-paati, kuid pommid ei plahvatanud.

F/O RC Fumerton ja Sgt LPS Bing, kes lendavad Beaufighteriga nr 406 Squadron, võitsid RCAF ’s esimese öise hävitaja võidu, hävitades Ju. 88 üle Bedlingtoni, Northumberland.

Tehti ettepanek ja kinnitati ülikooli õhutreeningmalevkonna moodustamine.

Torontos Havegali kolledžis avati naiste personalile mõeldud Manning Depot, kus 150 õhinaist läbisid halduskursusi. Seejärel määrati depoo ümber nr 6 Manning Depo.

Vaatamata tõsistele vigastustele, mis osutusid surmavateks, oli Californias nr 2 traadita kooli koolitusel olev traadita operaator-õhupüss LAC KM Gravell galantselt
püüdis oma piloodi päästa nende kukkunud Tiger Mothi lennuki põlevate rusude alt. Tema galantsust ja eneseohverdust tunnustati George Risti postuumsel autasul.

Kanada kuulutas Jaapanile sõja ja astuti kohe samme meie Vaikse ookeani kaitse tugevdamiseks. Alustati uute eskadronide moodustamist ja teised viidi EAC -lt WAC -ile.

Nr 404 (Blenheim) malevkond aitas pakkuda Vaagso (Norra) vaenlase positsioone ründavate komando vägede pikaajalist hävituskatet.

Ühendkuningriigis oli 21 ja kodus 16 RCAF eskadrilli. Ülemeremaade eskadrillidest tegutses 14 (viis hävitajat, kolm ööhävitajat, üks armee koostöö, kaks pommitajat ja kolm rannikuäärset). EAC -s oli nr 5 (BR), 11 (BR), 116 (BR), (moodustatud 28. juunil) ja 118 (F) Dartmouthis, nr 8 (BR) Põhja -Sydneys, nr 119 (BR) Yarmouthis ja nr 10 (BR) Ganderis, Nfld. WAC -is nr 13 (operatiivkoolitus), 111 (F) ja 115 (F) (moodustati 1. augustil) olid Patricia lahes nr 4 (BR) Ucluelet'is, nr 6 (BR) Allifordi lahes, Nr 120 (BR) Coal Harbouris, nr 7 (BR), (moodustatud 8. detsembril) prints Rupertis ja nr 9 (BR), (moodustatud 8. detsembril) Bella Bella's. Nr 12 (komm) eskadron oli endiselt Rockcliffe'is.

CWAAF -i koolitatud liikmed hakkasid Kanada üksustele aru andma. Nr 2 SFTS, Uplands, oli esimene jaam, mis võttis vastu selliseid töötajaid, kes olid algselt lähetatud BCATP jaamadesse.

Kanada naiste ja õhusõidukite abiväed nimetati ümber Kanada kuninglikeks õhujõududeks (naiste ja osade jaoskond).

Scharnhorst, Gneisenau ja Prinz Eugen põgenesid Brestist, kus neid pommitajate juhtimisüksus RCAF sageli ründas, ning põgenesid La Manche'i väina ja Doveri väina kaudu laevastiku õhuväe ja ranniku-, pommitaja- ja hävitajalennukite rünnaku alla. RAF -i käsud. Üheksa Kanada eskadrilli (neli pommitajat, neli hävitajat ja üks rannikuala) osales päevaoperatsioonis seitse lennukit, kolm vaenlase hävitajat ja kolm vigastada.


Sisu

Eskaadri AH-64D Apache Longbows, mis on relvastatud oma mitmekesise kandevõimega AGM-114 Hellfire rakettide, Hydra 70 rakettide ja ühe 30 mm M230 kettpüstoliga, saab SAF-i toetada mis tahes operatsioonides, mis seda nõuavad. Samuti on ette nähtud helikopterite integreerimine SAF-i integreeritud teadmistel põhinevasse juhtimis- ja juhtimisvõrku, mis on sarnane Ameerika Ühendriikide kaitseministeeriumi võrgukeskse sõjapidamise doktriiniga. See kohapeal välja töötatud lahingujuhtimissüsteem ühendab kõik pardal olevad andurid ja relvasüsteemid, suurendab lahinguruumi teadlikkust ja annab vaenlasele vähe aega reageerimiseks, kuna andur-laskur on lühikesed ahelad, kuna see jagab tõhusalt teavet oma armee ja mereväe kolleegide vahel.

Kui britid otsustasid 1967. aastal oma väed Kaug -Idast välja viia, nägi Singapur vajadust luua oma relvajõud. Singapuri õhutõrjejuhatus (SADC) moodustati esialgse ülesehituse osana. 1969. aasta septembris loodud Alouette'i eskadron pani seega aluse RSAFi helikopterivägedele. [2]

Alouette'i eskadrilli redigeerimine

Alouette'i eskadrill asus esialgu Seletari lennuväljal, hõivates Lockheedi (praegu ST Aerospace) angaari. Jaanuaris 1971 sai eskaadrist esimene SADC üksus, mis lähetati välismaale, kui neli tema lennukit osalesid Malaisias Kuantani üleujutusoperatsioonil. Varsti pärast seda sai Alouette'i eskadrill operatiivse staatuse, saades SADC esimeseks operatiivüksuseks. Vahetult pärast uusaastapäeva 1972 ümber asunud Changi lennubaasi asusid eskaadri peamised ülesanded otsingu- ja päästetöödeks, õhutõrjeks, sisejulgeolekuks, rappimiseks, vägede tõstmiseks ja logistikaks.

Uus nimetus Muuda

16. detsembril 1973 muudeti eskaadri nimetus 120 malevkonnaks (120 SQN). Eskadron jätkas Alouette III -de opereerimist kuni 1977. aastani, mil lennuk ei suutnud enam rahuldada SAF -i kasvavaid vajadusi. 1977. aastal soetati kolm Bell 212 ja seitseteist UH-1H ning helikopterid liitusid eskaadriga vastavalt veebruaris ja augustis. [2]

120 SQN algatas RSAF-i esimese alalise ülemeredepartemangude eraldamise septembris 1978, kui Bruneisse paigutati esmakordselt kolm UH-1H-d. Nende roll oli eelkõige SAF -i džunglite koolituse toetamine seal.

Õhusõiduki otsingu- ja päästetööde ülesandeks Singapuri ja Lõuna -Hiina mere ümbruses töötasid Bell 212 -d aastatel 1977–1985, kui 125 Squadroni helikopterid Super Puma selle ülesande üle võtsid.

1983. aastal kolis eskadron viimast korda ümber ja asus Sembawangi lennubaasi, kuna helikopterid olid Changi vabastanud ja asusid elama Kangawi laagrisse. Kangawi kasutati siis suurtükiväebaasina, kuigi varem oli see Briti lennuväli - RAF Sembawang või rohkem tuntud kui HMS Simbang. Kui Singapuri suurtükivägi 1983. aastal Khatibi laagrisse siirdus, anti Kangawi laager üle RSAF -ile ja nimetati ümber Sembawangi lennubaasiks (SBAB). Sellest ajast sai SBAB -st helikopterite operatsioonide keskpunkt ja üks viiest RSAF -i koosseisust. [2]

Märkimisväärsed juurutused

1980. aastatel tõid pealkirjadesse kolm dramaatilist sündmust 120 SQN -i. Oktoobris 1980 mängis eskadron Battery Roadis lõpetamata Raffles Toweris kõrghoonete päästedraamat. Bell 212 saadeti kraanaoperaatorit hoone katuselt päästma pärast seda, kui 18. korruse tulekahju oli ta kinni jäänud. [2]

Seejärel tuli 1983. aasta jaanuaris Bell 212 abil Singapuri köisraudteelt turvaliselt vintsutada kolm inimest pärast seda, kui puurlaev Singapuri Maailma Kaubanduskeskuse vetes kogemata sisse sõitis ja kaablid katkestas. [3]

Kolmas kord oli hotelli New World katastroof märtsis 1986. Pärast hotelli kokkuvarisemist saatis 120 SQN katastroofipaigale kolm UH-1H-d, et tagada ööpäevaringne õnnetuste evakueerimine. [2]

Muud äratundmised Muuda

Veel 2002. aasta oktoobris saatis 120 SQN ÜRO rahuvalvemissiooni toetuseks Ida-Timorisse nelja UH-1H salga. [4]

Oma saavutuste hulgas võitis 120 SQN mitmeid ASEANi helikopterite meistrivõistlusi ja on võitnud parima taktikalise toe SQN aastatel 88/89, 91/92, 94/95, 95/96 ja 99/00.

  1. 8 × SA316B Alouette III (1968–1978, viidi hiljem üle Malaisia ​​kuninglikesse õhujõududesse)
  2. 3 × kell 212 (1978–1985, müüdi hiljem Sri Lanka õhujõududele)
  3. 24 × UH-1H (1978–2005) 17 × UH-1H tarniti 1978. aastal koos teise 2 × UH-1D (hiljem moderniseeritud UH-1H standardiga) ja 5 × UH-1H-ga, mis tarniti 1984. aastal. 2003. aastal moderniseeriti ja müüdi Filipiinidele 7 lennukikappi Õhujõud sõlmivad 12 miljoni USA dollari suuruse tehingu.
  4. 20 × AH-64D (2006– kuni praeguseni) [1]

Vana 120Sqn õlalapp Skylarkiga (Alouette prantsuse keeles) keskseks osaks.

RSAF -i esimene helikopter kasutusel - Aérospatiale Alouette III (kasutusest kõrvaldati 1978. aastal) koos esimese põlvkonna RAF -tüüpi ümmargustega.

RSAF AH-64D Longbow Apache staatiline kuvamine avatud uste ajal.

Kaks 120 Sqn-i AH-64D Apache'st, kes saatsid 127 Sqn-i CH-47SD Chinooki helikopterit NDP 2006 proovi ajal.


Ballykelly lennuvälja mälestusmärk avati

KURAATOR ja Shackletoni ja lennundusmuuseumi hooldaja Norman Thorpe on jätnud püsiva mälestusmärgi Ballykelly lennubaasi instrumentaalsele osale Teises maailmasõjas.

Pärast aastaid kestnud kampaaniat näitas ABCT peadirektor koos Kenneth Bannermaniga Tamlaghfinlagani koguduse kirikus uue mälestuskivi, meenutades RAF -i kohalolekut külas aastatel 1941–1971.

Hr Thorpe soovis tänada Claire Sugden MLA -d, Kenneth Bannermani Suurbritannia looduskaitsefondi lennuväljade peadirektorit, Ellen Harper Head Girl Ballykelly integreeritud algkooli ja Bailekelly integreeritud algkooli Caileam Gallagher Head Boy, andes oma aja Tamlaghfinlagani kihelkonna kirikus avatava RAF -i mälestusmärgi toetamiseks. .

Ballykelly lennubaas ehitati lähedal asuva Limavady satelliidiks, mis avati 1. juunil 1941.

Kuna kolme lennuraja ja tugihoonete ehitustööd ei olnud lõpetatud, oli lennuväli esialgu vaikne, kuni sügisel saabus öövõitlejate salk Ballyhalbertist.

Rannikukomandode arendusüksus (CCDU) ​​järgnes detsembris 1941 ja lendas mitmesuguseid tüüpe, kuni kolis Taini 1942. aasta juunis.

Eskaadri nr 220 Boeingi kindlused ja nr 120 eskadroni konsolideeritud vabastajad korraldasid 1942. aasta suvest kuni 1943. aasta alguseni merepatrulli, kui nad siirdusid Aldergrove'i.

Mitmed Fleet Air Arm eskadrillid veetsid maabumise ajal Ballykelly's lühikest aega, kaasates enamasti Fairey Swordfishi üksusi. Eskadrillid nr 59 ja 86 saabusid Aldergrove'ist 1943. aasta septembris vastavalt kaheks aastaks ja kuueks kuuks ning nr 120 malevkond tuli tagasi 1944. aasta kevadel, kuni see 1945. aasta juunis laiali läks.

Ühine allveelaevade vastane kool (JASS) loodi 1945. aasta novembris ja püsis allveelaevade vastase taktika alal kuni 1970ndate alguseni.

Shackletonid asusid sel perioodil alates 1952. aastast Ballykelly linnas, kusjuures 204 eskadrill elas aastatel 1954, mil seda reformiti, ja 1971.

Numbritest 203, 240 ja 269 said teised Shackletoni üksused, kes veetsid märkimisväärseid perioode sellel hõivatud lennuväljal, mis 1950. aastate alguses üsna suurel määral ümber kujundati.

Aeg -ajalt liitusid ka erinevad Fleet Air Arm eskadrillid, kuid Ballykelly hakkas järgmise kümnendi lõpust lendavas mõttes lõpetama.

Viimane lahkumisüksus oli 1971. aasta kevadel eskadrill nr 204 ja lennuväli suleti sama aasta juuni alguses.

Saades sel kuul armee kätte Shackletoni kasarmuks, kasutati saiti sellisena kuni 2008. aastani.

Alles jääb märkimisväärne osa lennuvälja asukohast, sealhulgas kolm lennurada, millest üks ületas ebatavaliselt raudteeliini.

Ka mõned hooned jäävad ellu, sealhulgas sõjajärgne konsooliangaar, mis loodi spetsiaalselt 1960ndatel Ühendkuningriigi üheks suurimaks saanud Shackletonide jaoks, ja juhttorn.

Sait on nüüd kas MJM Groupi omanduses või hallatav - ostetud lennuväli 2016, Shackletoni ja lennundusmuuseum ning Iirimaa Tamlaghtfinlagani kirik Ballykelly.


Mälestades Don O 'Hearne

Donald O’Hearne'i Edmontoni kooliklassi lastele oli see suur päev: neil oli võimalus näha mõnda neist uutest filmidest, mis on tehtud otse nende linnas.

Teemaks oli kohaliku lennuvälja õhusõidukid - ja seal keset hirmutavaid lendureid oli klassivend Donald ise, samal ajal kui ta pidi koolis olema.

Don sündis 1916. aastal Edmontonis, vanim neljast lapsest. "Ma arvan, et mind on alati huvitanud lennukid, alates kummipaeltega juhitavate mudelite ehitamisest kuni reaktiivlennukiteni."

Tema isa oli teeninud Kanada ekspeditsioonivägede 202. pataljonis koos noormehega, kelle nimi oli Wilfred “Wop” May, kes hiljem liitus kuningliku lendava korpusega, elas üle “Punase paruni” rünnaku ja jätkas mitut tüüpi lennundusajalugu. Kanada.

Don on piisavalt vana, et meenutada, et ta nägi Kanadas ehitatud Curtiss Jenny “Edmontoni linna” Alberti pealinna “hobusetallide” sarikates rippumas. Kui Don 1927. aasta kevadel haigestus, tõi sõber talle kristallraadio, millega Don jälgis Charles Lindberghi eepilise lennu kulgu üle Atlandi ookeani. Tal on siiani lennundusraamat, mille vanemad tol ajal umbes tõid. He found his way out to Cooking Lake, the floatplane base near Edmonton, where he saw Bellancas and Fokkers. Much nearer was Blatchford Field (now the Edmonton City Centre Airport), where he had his “butt kicked” by pioneering bush pilot Matt Berry for hanging around when he should have been in school -- hence the film incident mentioned above.

Of course, Edmonton was not immune to the Great Depression of the 1930s. Don’s father lost his job and moved to take another in Saskatoon.

Don was enrolled in 1931 in The Bridge City’s King Edward School, where another of the students was a lad named Ray Crone -- by coincidence, another buff of Canada’s aviation history.

Sadly, the second job of Don’s father disappeared, too, so the age of 16 saw Don out working to support his family. He was a delivery boy and also worked in an abattoir, then a meat market. He eventually joined the local militia (army reserve) unit, the Saskatoon Light Infantry, where the attractions included pay of 75 cents for each day training. When he became aware that the RCAF had a new auxiliary (reserve) unit at Regina, No. 120 Squadron, he wangled a transfer to it -- even though he was too far away to join other members for their weekly training sessions. He also joined the Saskatoon Flying Club, taking flying lessons under Dave Dyck and even parachuting lessons under George Bennett, who offered not only instructions, but three jumps, for $10 Don still has the crest he received for completing the course.

“As far as the parachuting goes, they [the students] were scared -- but you couldn’t back out because the others were all doing it!” naeris ta. “You HAD to go along. They said. ‘You’ll get used to it, but after the third jump, it was still pretty scary!”

Some of the other members of the Saskatoon Flying Club joined Britain’s prewar Royal Air Force, which even then was building up its strength for the looming war in Europe. When it finally arrived in the late summer of 1939, members of the SLI and No. 120 Squadron were told to report for duty. Don’s membership in these units now became important, for he was considered to be an experienced recruit.

Don, as a new member of the RCAF, soon found himself at what became the air force’s manning depot at Toronto, in the “showplace for animals” at the Canadian National Exhibition grounds.

For such an early intake of men, preparations were crude. Food was poor and “there were literally hundreds of beds, but very little else,” he recalled. Soon, though, he was transferred to the RCAF Station at Camp Borden, then to the RCAF’s new technical training school at St. Thomas, Ont. He was to train as an instructor in airframe mechanics.

St. Thomas was one of those little-known, but vital, military training facilities that made an impression on all those who passed through it. “Anyone who’s ever been there will never forget it,” he said. “We were in a former mental home -- the windows still had bars on them!”

It was also huge: 25 buildings over 487 acres -- big enough that it took 10 minutes to walk across above ground and much longer in the underground tunnel system. “Honestly, you really didn’t know where you were,” he said. “We got smart after a while and stayed out of them.”

As a future instructor, Don got pretty good treatment at St. Thomas. The quarters were “elegant” and there were extra meals and passes. “Quite a change from Toronto!” There was also considerable flexibility in passes, which explains how he was able to use a three-day leave to take a train back to Saskatoon, marry his girlfriend Frances and get back. It actually took more than three days to do all this, but strings were pulled in the right places.

Before he could instruct, Don needed some practical experience, so he was assigned as a crewman to the RCAF’s No. 4 (Bomber Reconnaissance) Squadron at Uculet, B.C., located on the southwest coast of Vancouver Island. It flew Blackburn Sharks, a couple of Northrop Deltas and several examples of magnificent old Stranraer flying boats, a huge biplane with two 875 Bristol Pegasus radial engines and an 85-foot wingspan. So many wires braced it that, “you could hear it coming for miles, screaming because of the wire,” he said.

On Don’s first shift on guard duty aboard a moored flying boat, he fell asleep. What woke him up was the sound of a small boat bringing a junior officer out. “The office cautioned me -- and didn’t do anything!”

The Stranraer was not amphibious, but a true flying boat. Beaching it -- pulling it onto shore -- meant attaching heavy beaching gear to the fuselage, which in turn required two swimmers and one more airman to guide the process. “It was very tricky with a running sea,” Don remembered. “You had to be a very good swimmer.”

The Blackburn Shark, a large single-engine biplane used for coastal patrol, was easier just a large dolly was used.

The work that these aircraft did was of patrolling “and checking on fishing boats -- time-consuming and monotonous with the continuous watching.”

“We never did see very much and I don’t know what we would have done if anyone had taken a shot at us,” he added. “One of the other crews claimed they did see a sub . we had to believe them, although it wasn’t confirmed.”

Don’s next postings was the brand new RCAF station at Coal Harbour, B.C., on the northern tip of the Queen Charlotte Islands near the site of the present-day CFS Holberg electronic eavesdropping post. Coal Harbour was on a coastal inlet about 12 miles inland from Port Hardy. “It was isolated as hell,” Don said.

“Almost nothing there, just seagulls and bears.” Getting there meant sailing to Port Hardy, then driving (or more likely walking) along the logging road to the station, which, “didn’t look that good at night -- and in the morning, it didn’t look any better.”

It was cold and muddy, with wooden “duck walks” connecting buildings. Two Stranraers sat on the inlet. Duties, initially, were mainly guard duty (“with Lewis guns -- with no ammunition”) plus “a lot of foot drill and exercise and not much else. Coal Harbour consisted of a house, a store and not much else . we really didn’t know why we were there, because nothing was ready.”

Power came from two Caterpillar tractor generators and heat from two boilers. Thus, one duty was shoveling coal and another was working in the station’s kitchen. “Every now and then, there’d be a [RCAF] Delta or Goose. We were glad when the navy came in because they had a lot of booze on board!”

Because wives and families were expected, some of the airmen decided to build a “condo” for them. They secured the services of a bulldozer and its operator and some of the construction workers on the station helped, too. Doors and windows were a problem, but the big day came when a squadron leader came to see their work. His suggestion: “To turn the plywood around so that the “GOVERNMENT” stamp couldn’t be seen!”

Finally, with Christmas 1940 approaching, an expedition was mounted to find suitable trees. Don remembers trekking through the area around the base and eventually finding a fine specimen that was cut and brought back to the apartments. Decorated, it was proudly shown to the owner of the local store and his wife they mildly commented that they’d had an identical tree growing in their backyard -- until somebody had recently cut it down!

Was there a sense of foreboding about a war with Japan during 1940 and 1941? ”I can’t honestly answer that question because we didn’t give it that much thought. We knew we were there for a reason. But as far as anything happening, I’d have to be honest and say that we didn’t really think about it.”

Don and his new wife, Frances, had left the West Coast and were at the BCATP station at Fort MacLeod, Alberta, when history intervened.

“’Where’s Pearl Harbour?” ta ütles.

“I said, ‘I don’t know where the hell Pearl Harbour is. “

“Something happened there,” Frances continued. “The Japanese bombed it.”

“Well,” said Don, “Then we were glued to the radio.”

Even bases quiet inland stations like Fort MacLeod were put on alert, though, “we were sitting there, at Fort MacLeod, with just a bunch of Ansons.”

When the Japanese rampaged throughout the Pacific and even shelled the lighthouse at Estevan Point on Vancouver Island, “we knew damned well that something was happening -- though we didn’t give it that much thought.”

But by the spring 1945, Western Canada was under actual attack. That spring saw him seconded to No. 11 SFTS at Yorkton, to which the RCAF’s 135 (Fighter) Squadron had sent three Hurricane fighters and their pilots to search for, and hopefully, shoot down Japanese balloon bombs that were then being launched over western Canada. The detachment had only about a dozen airmen, but “we used to pride ourselves on the time that we could get them off the ground. There were times when it took an hour there were other times when it took 10 minutes. It depended on when we got the call. They (whoever spotted the balloon) had to telephone and we’d have to find the pilots.”

The men operated from a “blister” or a small room on the side of one of the hangars. The Hurricanes -– one of which survives today in the collection of Gatineau’s Vintage Wings of Canada flying museum -– were kept fully armed and fuelled their pilots were supposed to sit in readiness, playing cards drinking coffee. As for the Hurricanes, “they were always armed and fueled and ready to go.”

If a call came in, “a fitter would usually start it up and have it running then the pilot would get in there -- and away they’d go. We could see the odd one (balloon) flying over, but they (the Hurricanes) could never get up there in time.”

“We had a little hut we called them blisters. Usually, the pilots would sit in there and drink coffee and play cards.” There were only about a dozen groundcrew, but they “did a helluva job”, he said.

When a balloon was spotted, a call was made to 11 SFTS, then put through to the mini-dispersal area, a klaxon would go off. “We used to make sure that we had a fitter available to start the engines.”

He heard a rumour that a Yorkton-area farmer brought in a suspicious device, supposedly from a balloon bomb. Part of the hangar was immediately blocked off. The security surrounding the entire balloon bomb operation was “so tight that a mouse couldn’t even have got there.

He recalls that 11 SFTS at Yorkton flew Mark 5 Ansons and had recently taken over all of the Cornell trainers that had been operating from the EFTS at Davidson, plus some Mark 2 or 3 Ansons.

Don remembers being at Yorkton on VE Day – the cessation of hostilities in Europe. I asked him if there was a party. “There sure as hell was! He said.

“The mayor of Yorkton wasn’t very impressed. The guys had strung toilet paper all over the town and the restaurants and hotels were just booming.”

What would be next? “We were all set we’d had our shots and had our tropical gear and we were ready to go east when they (the American armed forces) dropped the atomic bomb and, of course, they (RCAF brass) cancelled everything.”

Don remained in the postwar RCAF and, at one point just after the war headed a reserve equipment maintenance unit (REMU) team with a truck, about 15 men and a “Queen Mary”, a long, specially built trailer that could carry the fuselage of an aircraft needing repair or salvage. They went from closed BCATP base to closed base, preparing aircraft for storage or sale. He remembers presenting the team at the guardhouse of what had been Moose Jaw’s 32 SFTS, where a fiercely mustachioed British service policeman barked, “Where you going?”

Where the ground instruction building is now located, there were barracks. They were “absolutely filthy” and the men initially were billeted in the downtown Grant Hall Inn before suitable quarters were found in what had been the station’s chapel. He recalls Moose Jaw as being a collection point for RCAF Cansos, Ansons and Oxfords. For the record, he remembers Mossbank was a storage site for Cornells and Hurricanes, while Swift Current had Cranes, Ansons and Cornells, all lined up”. Some aircraft –- like those that had to be returned to the U.S. or were needed by the postwar RCAF –- were ferried away by the RCAF’s No 170 Squadron, which specialized in such work. But as for the rest, “they’d bring in the accounting people and the supply people and you could buy whatever you wanted.”

By 1951, Don was stationed at the RCAF training base at Centralia, near London, Ont., when a W/C Miles, a senior engineering officer, asked him, “How would you like to go to Moose Jaw with me?”

“He said, ‘They’re going to open up Moose Jaw for a training school.’ He said, ‘We’ve got to do some evaluation, to see what’s required.”

Thus it came to pass that Don, W/C Miles and a few others were bundled into an RCAF Expeditor and went to the site of the wartime 32 SFTS south of Moose Jaw. It was, as he recalls, November or December of 1951 and “it was cold, cold.”

Don’s impression of the state of the base was blunt: “It was a mess.”

The wartime barracks, for example, were so shabby that the evaluation team could not stay in them, so they once again headed to the Friendly City’s Grant Hall Inn.

Their work eventually done, Don and the rest of the team returned to Centralia. But in February or March of 1952, the same wing commander appeared again and told Don he was returning to Moose Jaw –- permanently. “My exact words were, ’What the hell did I do to you?’” Don remembered.

Renovations to the old 32 SFTS to convert it into RCAF Station Moose Jaw (and ready it for a new generation of pilot trainees) were by the spring of 1952 well under way -– though there were no training aircraft at the base yet. “First of all, we had to set up maintenance.“

Access to the station was via Highway 2, which went south from the east side of downtown Moose Jaw the new highway that went from the city’s west side to the base was still under construction.

No. 7 hangar (now home to the Snowbirds air demonstration team) was then occupied by civilians: specifically, charter pilot Don Walz and his family, which was living in the northern part of the hangar, while the southern half of the hangar was used to marshal passengers for a civilian flight. Don thinks it was Pacific Western Airlines, but this firm did not yet exist. But Canadian Pacific Airlines flew from Moose Jaw to Regina, Saskatoon, Prince Albert and North Battleford, eventually adding Edmonton to this route. In this period, Don’s own family remained in Centralia, while he lived in a barracks at Moose Jaw.

The mess hall was in Hangar 4 while a permanent one was being built. Hangar 5 housed supplies and CPR staff handled landline telecommunications until the RCAF’s own personnel arrived. Don’s impression of the reopened base during this perioid was, “an awful lot of mud … it was an awful mess.”

“It was just mud. Everything was under construction. When we moved into the married quarters in 1953, we had to have a bulldozer pull the moving truck down the street. It was all mud!”

The main fleet of Harvard training aircraft arrived from RCAF Station Gimli, Manitoba, in Operation GIMJAW, which spanned May and June of 1953. The station had its own small fleet of Expeditors for transport duties, such as flying the commanding officer to RCAF Training Command headquarters in Winnipeg. “They were more of communications aircraft than anything else. The CO had to go to Winnipeg? He’d go on an Expeditor. He had his own we kept it pretty well polished.”

Don stayed at RCAF Station Moose Jaw until the summer of 1957, when his family’s vacation of Waskesiu was cut short by another airman’s news: Don was being posted overseas – specifically, to the RCAF’s 2 (Fighter) Wing at Grostenquin, France. He would be working on the CF-100 all-weather fighter. Don was surprised. Putting his fingers together he said, “I knew THAT MUCH about jets”

But orders are orders, and the family soon got into action. After packing their goods, they took a train east to Toronto, where they visited Don’s parents in Toronto, then preceded to Montreal, where they boarded the ocean liner SS Hibernia. It took them and a number of other families across the Atlantic to Le Havre, where an RCAF officer met them and got them onto a train to Paris, from which they caught another train to the northern city of St. Evaux and then the base at Grostenquin.

Don’s posting was to 423 Squadron, which flew grey/green/light grey camoflauged CF-100s alongside two squadrons of Sabres. “We were armed all the time,” Don said. “We were on 24 hours readiness and the pilots slept in the hangars. When we’d get an alert – what they called a ‘yellowjacket’, and when it was yellow, they’d sit on the cockpit right in the hangar.”

Don took particular pride in the ability of RCAF personnel to work minor miracles while on deployments to other NATO bases to -– a tribute to the RCAF system of cross-training personnel in each other’s groundcrew specialties.

As for the CF-100s themselves, Don said, “we called them ‘the Clunk’ and a lot of other bad names, but they were a good airplane.”

The ‘Clunks’ were not without quirks, though. Fuel normally was carried in two places –- fuselage tanks and wing tanks -– with wingtip tanks replacing rocket pods when long flights were planned. The price of the complicated fuel system was that when maintenance personnel would pull down the CF-100’s internal gun pack of eight .50-calibre machine guns, “there would be a fuel leak”. Overall, though, “it was an easy plane to work on it wasn’t difficult. Canadians built it and it was built for ease of maintenance.”

One weak point was the CF-100's radar, which wasn’t “all that reliable –- at least that’s what the radar people would tell us.”

And aircrew had to make sure that they’d drained the fuselage tanks before emptying the wing tanks. There were, sadly, quite a few casualties, including one spectacular accident that saw two aircraft collide right over RCAF Station Grostenquin and crash into the station’s hospital, with several fatalities. There were frequent rotations to the NATO air gunnery range at Decimomannu (nicknamed “Decchi”) in Sardinia, where a deal had been struck with local fishermen: aircraft would have to be airborne by 0400h, then finish early, giving the fishermen time to work. There was a benefit, though: the Canadian airmen thus had each afternoon off and were free to go to the local beach –- which Don recalls as being superb.

Back at Grostenquin, Don recalls the dispersal for the station’s two Sabre squadrons, Nos. 421 and 430, was close to the station, while 423’s was “way out in the boondocks, as we called it.” This, and the long road to the dispersal area – which even had traffic lights controlling the passage of cars over a runway -- set the stage for an unusual incident involving Don’s wife, Frances. Two things happened on the same day: Frances needed the family car for an errand and heavy fog was blanketing the area around the station, so flying was temporarily suspended. Frances and Don drove to dispersal, whereupon Don got out and Frances departed, secure in the belief that no aircraft would be flying that day when she headed for the road that crossed the runway.

Alas, “one guy decided he’d go out and check the weather,” Don recalled. “She said the wheels rolled over the roof of the car.” I said he wasn’t THAT low, but she said it WAS – and she remembered that.”

In 1962, Don and his family were posted back to Canada. Initially, he was told he’d be going to RCAF Station Saskatoon, home of 1 Advanced Flying School. But the station was soon to close, and Don received word he’d be going back to Moose Jaw. “I went right back to Moose Jaw – and back to the same office that I’d left.”

Allikad: Will Chabun's Aug. 27, 2008 interview with Don O’Hearne, plus follow-up e-mails as well as the author's notes of Don's talk on his career to the Regina Chapter of the Canadian Aviation Historical Society (CAHS) in 1994.

Here is the second article I wrote in 2007 after interviewing Don about his work with the Vintage Aircraft Restorers group at the Western Development Museum in Moose Jaw:

The story of the Vintage Aircraft Restorers volunteer group that has operated from the Moose Jaw branch of the Western Development Museum starts only a few years after the museum itself opened in 1976.

Inside the large, new, pyramid-shaped museum building on the northern edge of Moose Jaw there was clearly display room for additional aircraft to supplement the Norseman and Swallow biplane that entered the museum right after it opened. Asked to help secure and restore additional aircraft was RCAF veteran Don O’Hearne, who had served in the RCAF as a maintenance NCO from 1939 until 1965, then joined what used to be called Canada Manpower. His team’s first project, around 1980, was overseeing the restoration of a Cessna Crane twin-engine trainer for the museum. “I took on the job and gradually took on some people and we restored the Crane,” he said 28 years later.

That led to the restoration of two Canadian-built trainers of the Second World War: an Avro Anson and a Cornell. A Stinson 108 was restored in the markings of the Saskatchewan Flying Farmers -- by the Flying Farmers themselves), a Tiger Moth, a Funk high-wing monoplane and a Piper J-3 Cub.

Also constructed by VAR members were the front section of a Tutor and Airspeed Oxford (as children’s’ hands-on displays, a scale-model dioramas of a Snowbirds formation display and the wartime No. 5 Bombing & Gunnery School at Dafoe, replica (overhead in Snowbird Gallery) and a pair of Link Trainers, the state-of-the-art air training simulators of 1940.

Being restored by the VAR in 2008 were a complete Airspeed Oxford (for Saskatchewan aircraft historian/collector Frank Thompson) and a Canadian-built Vickers Vedette used by the RCAF in the late 1920s and then by the fledgling air service of the Saskatchewan Government in the mid-1930s.


France, 1940: 1 Squadron

In October 1939, the squadron moved to Vassincourt, where it became a part of the AASF, ready for operations over the front line. This force included ten squadrons of Fairey Battle light bombers, together with the Hurricanes of 1 and 73 squadrons, which were to escort them and to provide protection.

On 30 October 1939, the squadron's Pilot Officer PWO 'Boy' Mould shot down a Luftwaffe reconnaissance Dornier 17, which was the first RAF fighter claim over France. However, opposition in the air was rare during this 'phoney war' period, and by the end of the year only four victories had been claimed.

During the spring of 1940, clashes with the Luftwaffe became more frequent as the weather improved, and by 20 April the squadron 'bag' had risen to 23, for the loss of five Hurricanes and one pilot killed.

On 10 May 1940, the great German offensive in the west (which rapidly became known as the välksõda, or 'lightning war') began. Wehrmacht airborne troops landed in Holland and Belgium, as German tank columns and infantry crossed the frontiers into these neutral countries. At once elements of the French northern armies and the BEF moved forward into Belgium to intercept these invasions.

Meanwhile strong formations of Luftwaffe bombers and fighters launched a series of surprise attacks on Allied airfields, catching many units on the ground. 1 Squadron was fortunate not to be one of those caught, but was swiftly in action, flying many patrols and engaging in frequent fights with opposing formations.

Although almost always outnumbered, the squadron's well trained and experienced pilots did well from the start, and by the close of 13 May had claimed some 40 German aircraft shot down, for the loss in action of nine Hurricanes, but of only one pilot - young Pilot Officer Billy Drake, who was shot down and wounded by a Messerschmitt Bf 110. He baled out of his burning Hurricane, but did not rejoin the squadron until after its return to England.

On 14 May it became clear that German forces had made their way through the Ardennnes forest - thought by the French to be virtually impassable to armoured units - and were in the Sedan area, threatening to outflank the massive fixed defences of the Maginot Line, and to tear a great hole in the Allied lines. French and RAF bombers were thrown in here in a desperate attempt to stop the rot, but huge losses were suffered to Luftwaffe fighters and flak (anti-aircraft fire).


Early life and education

George Johnson (known within the family as Leonard) was the sixth and last child born to Charles and Ellen Johnson. He was born in the village of Hameringham in the East Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England. His mother died when he was three, leaving his father, a farm foreman, to bring up the family in somewhat poor conditions. The family lived in a tied cottage, his oldest sister Lena largely being responsible for his early upbringing.

Johnson attended school in the village of Winthorpe until the age of 11. Through a bursary scheme set up for the children of agricultural workers, he was sent as a boarder to the Lord Wandsworth Agricultural College in Long Sutton, Hampshire. He was active in sport, playing football, cricket and participating in athletics, winning several events. He passed his School Certificate, leaving school in December 1939.


  • Based at RAF Lossiemouth, 120 Squadron is the RAF&rsquos first operator of the Poseidon maritime patrol aircraft (MPA)
  • 120 Squadron began its long association with anti-submarine warfare and maritime patrol when it began operating the Liberator GR.Mk I from RAF Nutt&rsquos Corner, County Antrim, in 1941
  • 120 Squadron was RAF Coastal Command&rsquos highest-scoring anti-submarine warfare squadron in World War II
  • Became the first Avro Shackleton operator
  • Flew the Nimrod from 1970

1918 &ndash 120 Squadron stood up 1 January as a Royal Flying Corps unit at RAF Cramlington, Northumberland. It disbanded in October 1919

1941 &ndash Also known as CXX Squadron, the unit began flying the Consolidated Liberator in the Battle of the Atlantic

1942 &ndash Deployed detachments to Reykjavik, Iceland and the Middle East, before relocating to Iceland in 1943

1944 &ndash Returned to Ireland, stationed at Ballykelly

1946 &ndash Re-equipped with the Avro Lancaster

1951 &ndash First squadron to operate the Avro Shackleton MPA

1970 &ndash Began operating the Hawker Siddeley Nimrod jet MPA. Disbanded, still on the Nimrod, in 2010

2017 &ndash Announced as the first Poseidon MRA1 squadron, receiving the UK's initial example in 2019

2020 &ndash Flew the first UK-based Poseidon to Kinloss Barracks while upgrade work at RAF Lossiemouth was completed


Closing the 'air gap'

Northern Ireland’s primary role in relation to the air-war was to come through its port and airfield bases, mainly as Coastal Command due to Ireland’s geographical position to the North Atlantic, with a later role being extended to facilitate United States Army Air Force Combat Crew Replacement Centres (USAAF CCRCs).

By late 1940, the Allies were in a dangerously critical position in the Battle of the Atlantic. The German U-boats were going through the ‘happy time’ with Britain’s merchant fleet suffering a casualty rate of frightening proportions. In these early days there were little signs of the forthcoming tactics of joint Naval/Coastal Command co-operation, but signs began to appear to close the gap where no air-cover from east to west existed, and that meant building airfields as far west as possible to Britain.

For this reason an airfield building programme was commenced in Northern Ireland. Convoy protection and anti-U-boat patrols were already underway with No.502 Squadron from Aldergrove, an established pre-war airfield, whilst airfields built early in the war were Limavady, for aircraft engaged in convoy escort and reconnaissance patrols, and Ballyhalbert, for fighter protection of the Belfast area deemed urgent after the German raids of April/May 1941.

There was also a need for flying boat bases which had the advantage of no runway construction. Earmarked for one such base was Lough Erne in Co Fermanagh and despite an unfavourable report of the area in December 1940, the war situation dictated otherwise and work began around the Castle Archdale estate in January 1941. Lough Erne would provide an extra 100 miles of air-cover over the squadrons currently sited at Loch Ryan in SW Scotland.

However, there was one major problem that needed to be overcome for the base to fulfill its intended use – the aircraft needing to fly straight out into the Atlantic over Donegal Bay and hence over Free State territory. Sir John Maffey, the British representative to Eire, began a series of delicate negotiations with the Taoiseach, Eamon de Valera, to ask that aircraft be allowed to fly that route. On January 21, 1941, he received permission with limited conditions. Flights were to be at good height and were not to fly over the Irish Army camp at Finner, near Ballyshannon. Later, many more concessions were granted to the Allies as de Valera’s government engaged in a policy of benevolent neutrality.

The scope of arrangements were later widened. By February 5, 1941, No 240 Squadron RAF began to use Lough Erne. No 240 Squadron had converted to Catalinas and in those early days these aircraft would leave Lough Erne at dawn, patrol the Atlantic as far as Newfoundland and return to Wig Bay at Stranraer in Scotland usually around 04:30 hours, as it was a 21-hour patrol.

Upon arrival at Wig Bay, they would rest until later that morning, then fly over to Lough Erne and fuel up for another patrol the following morning. The reason for this diversion was that landings on Lough Erne at night were, in those early days, considered unsafe owing to the mountainous nature of the district.

May of 1941 was to prove eventful for No 240 Squadron when firstly on the 16th, a Catalina depth-charged an Italian submarine. The escorting naval corvettes confirmed the kill. However it was the sighting of the battleship Bismark on the morning of May 26 by Catalina ‘Z’ flown by Flying Officer Briggs and carrying an American co-pilot, Ensign Leonard Smith, that brought Castle Archdale into the history books within months of its opening. Ensign Smith was one of a group of US Naval personnel familiarising RAF pilots with the Catalina, whilst at the same time gaining operational experience. Their presence, as the United States was still neutral, was kept a secret, as was their intention to establish a flying boat base at nearby Killideas to accommodate four Catalina squadrons. A pressing need for US Catalinas in the Pacific put that plan on ice and Killideas became an RAF Operational Training base with No.131 OTU flying Catalinas.

In February 1942, the slipway at Lough Erne was used for the first time to beach a Sunderland.

Also significant for February was that the ‘happy time’ for the U-boats was ending. With the establishment of a Western Approaches command centre in Liverpool, new convoy escorts and an intensification of coastal command patrols, a significant turning point emerged.

March 1941 saw the German U-boat command lose four boats, commanded by ‘aces’.

No 221 Squadron RAF moved to Limavady in May 1941 from Bircham Newton in Norfolk England with their ASV equipped Wellingtons, whilst No.254 Squadron whose Beaufighters had come from Sumbridge at the end of May, took over patrols from Aldergrove until December when it left for Dyce in Scotland.

No 245 Squadron, who had been at Aldergrove with Hurricanes, left on July 15 as Fighter Sector HQ was transferred to Ballyhalbert on June 28, 1941. Aldergrove was then allocated to Coastal Command and No 233 Squadron, who were also stationed there with Hudsons, shot down a long range Condor which was attacking a convoy on July 23.

Further runway construction at Aldergrove began in September 1941, but the airfield remained operational with No 206 Squadron also flying Hudsons based there. Aldergrove was one of three airfields being upgraded in terms of runway length and layout, the others being Ballykelly and Ballyhalbert.

The creation of Ballykelly was clear from the start – to base long range reconnaissance aircraft to operate out into the Atlantic to cover ‘the Mid Atlantic Gap’ - ‘The Black Gap’ – where no air-cover could be provided allowing the U-boats to track the convoys with impunity.

The answer was the American built B24 Liberator bomber! No 120 Squadron, RAF was already forming up at Nutts Corner, ten miles North of Belfast with the Mk 1, but the specialised maritime equipment needed for the conversion of this ‘bomber’ to a maritime role was still in short supply, so for the next year, until August 1942, the squadron would remain the only Liberator squadron. Two further squadrons, Nos 59 and 86 would also later operate from Aldergrove and Ballykelly flying Mk V Liberators. Ballykelly’s first operational Coastal squadron was No.220 Squadron, flying B17 flying fortresses.

The following year, in July 1942, No 120 Squadron joined No 220 at Ballykelly, as No 120 Squadron had occasionally used Ballykelly as a landing ground during their time at Nutts Corner after sweeps out into the Atlantic. (Ballykelly aircraft used Bishopscourt in Co Down in a similar way.) During the summer of 1942, later versions of the Liberator, the Mk II and Mk III were joining No 120 Squadron and they were now able to patrol out to 30 degrees west and beyond with an endurance of over 16 hours. This now ensured that the squadron would be able to encounter U-boats in the notorious ‘air gap’.

All Liberators up to the Mk III standard were equipped with ASV Mk II radar, with a range of some ten miles. Transmitter aerials were located obliquely at the front on the outer wing and looking out sideways on the rear fuselage. When a contact was picked up, the aircraft would turn on to the relevant bearing and home in with an aerial on the nose.

The Mk III aircraft retained the two .50 calibre machine guns in the rear ‘Glen Martin Turret,’ instead of the four .303 machine guns and the ‘Bolton Paul’ turret of the more extensively modified aircraft. A more important feature was the American H2X centimetric radar whose scanner was housed in the ventral ball turret position, the first Coastal Command aircraft to use the new radar operationally.

Construction standards at airfields were modified as the war developed. The largest and best equipped airfields were Cluntoe, Toome, Greencastle (all three later passing to the USAAF as CCRCs) and Bishopscourt, which were all built to 1942 Class A Bomber Standard which stipulated optimum runway length and gradients enabling operation of the heaviest aircraft then in service.

After a spell at the Dumlambert Hotel in Belfast, No 82 Group Fighter Command set up HQ in the Senate Chamber in Northern Ireland’s one-time seat of Government, Stormont Castle, with an ‘emergency’ underground HQ bunker sited at Kircubbin in Co Down. Three fighter stations were set up at Ballyhalbert, Eglinton and Kirkistown, with a fourth station Maydown earmarked for USAAF use.

Many famous Battle of Britain squadrons were to find themselves at these bases over the years, such as No 152, who whilst based at Eglinton in 1941 lost two DFC (Distinguished Flying Cross) holders in crashes, Flying Officer Williams, DFC, and Squadron Leader Bodie, DFC. They were buried in St Canin’s Church, Eglinton.

Several Polish squadrons of the RAF such as No 303 and No 315 saw service at Ballyhalbert, as did No 504 squadron, who shot down a Ju88D which was on a return leg from a photographic reconnaissance patrol on August 23, 1942. They shared the ‘downing’ with No 315 Squadron (RAF Valley) and No 152 Squadron (RAF Angle) both in Wales. At this stage of the war, German aircraft were running the gauntlet through British airspace and such flights were becoming very hazardous. The Ju88D crash-landed near Tramore, Co Waterford, and the crew survived.

By March 1943, despite the U-boats still marking up the successful sinking of British and Allied merchant shipping, there were signs of the Allies taking the upper hand in the North Atlantic. Long range aircraft had closed the gap across the Atlantic.

In May 1943, U-boat command suffered its worst setbacks of the war and would lead them to contemplate defeat. They lost 41 boats, sank in that ‘one month’. Their total loss for 1943 had totalled 237, of which 148 were credited to joint Royal Navy/RAF Coastal Command operations. The tide had turned and the hunters had now become the hunted.

Lisalugemist:
Down in a Free State – Wartime Air Crashes and Forced Landings in Eire 1939 – 1945 (1999) by John Quinn


120 Squadron RAAF

No. 120 (Netherlands East Indies) Squadron was formed at RAAF Station Fairbairn in Canberra on 10 December 1943. As a joint Australian-Dutch unit, the Dutch authorities provided all the squadron's aircrew and aircraft while the RAAF provided its ground crew. This arrangement had been previously used for No. 18 (NEI) Squadron and the short-lived No. 119 (NEI) Squadron. It was originally intended that once formed, No. 120 (NEI) Squadron would be deployed to northern Australia and operate alongside No. 18 (NEI) Squadron. However, it was later decided to deploy the unit to Merauke, on the south coast of New Guinea, which formed part of the pre-war Netherlands East Indies (NEI).

The Squadron completed its training in early 1944. During December 1943, the No. 120 (NEI) Squadron pilots who had been trained in the United States received training at No. 2 Operational Conversion Unit to familiarise them with RAAF procedures. The squadron acquired its full complement of P-40 Kittyhawk fighters by 22 January 1944 at this time it was manned by 28 Dutch pilots and 213 RAAF personnel. In mid-March 1944 No. 120 (NEI) Squadron made an emergency deployment to 'Potshot' airfield in Western Australia in response to a feared Japanese attack on the Perth area. The squadron's aircraft began to depart Fairbairn on 9 March and returned on the 28th of the month after the crisis had passed.

More to follow. like to contribute?

We would particularly like to encourage individual historians researchers or members of unit associations to contribute to the development of a more detailed history and photographs pertaining to this unit and its members.


Vaata videot: Galerii și șine DELFA pentru draperii - alegerea ta corectă!


Kommentaarid:

  1. Tojalkree

    Väikesed asjad!

  2. Akitaxe

    Ma arvan, et teete vea. Teen ettepaneku seda arutada.

  3. Janos

    Yes abstract thinking

  4. Claudius

    Arvan, et lubate vea. Ma suudan seda tõestada.

  5. Wamukota

    See peaks olema selge!

  6. Cris

    Jagan täielikult teie arvamust. Ma arvan, et see on suurepärane idee. Ma nõustun sinuga.



Kirjutage sõnum